Skip to main content

Full text of "African-Americans in Boston : more than 350 years"

See other formats


Boston Public Library 

REFERENCE 



BANKOF BOSTON 

This book has been made possible through the generosity of 
Bank of Boston 



\ 



African-Americans in Boston 

More Than 350 Years 





Digitized by 


the Internet Archive 








in 2015 







https://archive.org/details/africanamericansOOhayd_0 



African-Americans 
in Boston: 

More Than 350 Years 

by Robert C. Hayden 
Foreword by Joyce Ferriabough 




Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston, 1991 



African-Americans in Boston: More Than 350 Years 
Written by Robert C. Hay den 
Conceived and coordinated by Joyce Ferriabough 
Designed by Richard Zonghi, who also coordinated production 
Edited by Jane Manthome 

Co-edited by Joyce Ferriabough, Berthe M. Gaines, 
C. Kelley, assisted by Frances Barna 

Funded in part by Bank of Boston 

PubUshed by Trustees of the Boston PubHc Library 

Typeset by Thomas Todd Company 

Printed by Mercantile Printing Company 



Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following individuals 
and organizations for use of the illustrations on the pages cited: 
T. J. Anderson (74); Associated Press Wirephoto (42 bottom, 43, 
98 left, 117); Fabian Bachrach (24, 116); Bob Backoff (27 left); 
Banner Photo (137); Charles D. Bonner (147 left); Boston 
African- American Historic Site, National Park Service (38, 77, 
105 right); The Boston Athenaeum (18, 35 top, 47 top, 123, 
130); Boston Globe (160); Boston Housing Authority (99); Boston 
Red Sox (161); Boston University News Service (119 right, 133); 
Margaret Bumham (110); John Bynoe (26); Julian Carpenter 
(153); Dance Umbrella (71); Mary Frye (147 right); 
S. C. Fuller, Jr. (142 right); Robert Gamett (145 left); Artis 
Graham (86); Calvin Grimes, Jr. (84); James Guilford (83); Rev. 
Barbara Harris (136); Robert C. Hayden (33, 93, 141 right, 145 
right top/bottom); C. Vincent Haynes (72 right); Barbara Holt 
(132); Jet Photographers (159 top); David Kahn and Co. (108 
right); Maria Kennedy (27 right); Joseph Kornegay (29); Afrika 
Hayes Lambe (65); Elma Lewis (71 top); Jack London (51 
bottom); Massachusetts Historical Society (92); Sandy 
Middlebrooks (184); J. Marcus Mitchell (52); Robert Morgan 
(87); Frank Morris (97); Christopher Morrow (60); Ed Owens 
(82); Rev. Richard Owens (134 right); Dr. Thomas W. Patrick, 
Jr. (142 left); Warren Patriquin (55); Isabella Ravenell (131); 
Louis Roberts (149); Robert S. Royster (141 left); James Russell 
(159 bottom); Fred Saunders (140); Schlesinger Library (64); 
Judith Sedwick (25); Domenic Serenci (56); Ralph Smith (30); 
Otto Snowden (127 right); Society Photo Company (42 top); 
U. S. Patent Office (152 top); Liz Walker (119 left); Don West 
(59, 100, 134 left, 186); Archie WiUiams (89); Ruth Wilhams 
(68). All other illustrations are from the collections of the Boston 
Public Library. 

ISBN 0-89073-083-0 

Second printing, corrected 

Copyright © 1992 Trustees of the Boston Public Library 



To African- American History Makers 
Past, Present, and Future 



Contents 



Foreword by Joyce Ferriabough 9 
Introduction by Robert C. Hayden 11 

Community Development 15 
Civil Rights 34 
Education 46 
Creative Arts 61 
Business/Industry 76 
Government/Politics 92 
Law 104 
Journalism 112 
Military Service 121 
Religion 129 

Science/Technology/Medicine 138 
Sports 151 

Epilogue 163 
Index 165 



\ 



Foreword 



This book was born out of sheer frustration and an urgent 
necessity. There needed to be a lasting record that chronicled 
the important contributions of African-Americans in Boston 
in order to educate our young people of all races and, in 
particular, to inspire future generations of African-Ameri- 
cans. 

In 1988 Mayor Raymond Flynn and Rosemarie Sansone, 
Director of the City's Office of Business & Cultural Develop- 
ment, gave me that opportunity when they appointed me di- 
rector of the City of Boston's yearlong celebration of 350 
Years of Black Presence. 

As I began to develop programs to showcase the events, 
people, and places that helped shape African-American his- 
tory in Boston, I expected that there would be volumes of 
information about the people who lived in Boston longer than 
any other ethnic group except, of course, the American In- 
dians. After all, it was here in Boston that Crispus Attucks, 
a Black man, became the first American to be killed in a 
massacre which led to the Revolutionary War; here, that the 
famous 54th Regiment rallied to fight in the Civil War; here, 
where many of the nation's most prestigious Black leaders 
lived or worked to inspire others and the nation — people 
like Trotter, Wheatley, DuBois, Douglass, Stewart, Malcolm 
X, Edward Brooke, to name a few. Yet I was surprised and 
dismayed that there existed only bits and pieces of Boston's 
Black history, and that there was not a single publication that 
even attempted to chronicle this illustrious history. This book 
was long overdue. 

As I began to lay the framework for the overall design of 
African- Americans in Boston: More Than 350 Years, one in- 
cident vividly replayed in my mind and convinced me how 
important and necessary this book will be for today's readers 
and for future generations. During the celebration of the 
350th, I developed a program for the City's Parks and Rec- 
reation Department which used art and music to teach Black 
history to children and community groups who came to some 
of the parks in the African-American community. First a 



9 



storyteller would unfold tales of Black people, places, and 
events of importance to the development of Black history in 
Boston to youthful readers. Then the children would create a 
mural and "rap" song based upon what they had learned. 
One day at the Trotter Playground in Roxbury, I was working 
with the children from the Phillis Wheatley School and the 
Crispus Attucks Summer Camp. "How many of you know 
who Phillis Wheatley was?" I asked. One or two hands were 
raised. One young man ventured, "a very famous person?" 
"How many of you know anything about the person this 
playground was named after, William Monroe Trotter?" I 
asked. Silence. "OK," I said, "here's an easy one: who was 
Crispus Attucks?" More silence. I was horrified by how very 
little our children, out next generation of leaders, knew about 
their history and their leaders — at a time when African- 
American young people desperately need to know their past 
to encourage self-pride and promote self-esteem. 

I know that this book will fill that void and become a val- 
uable resource — not only for African- Americans throughout 
the state, but for anyone interested in learning the history of 
a great people. Surely thousands of children and their parents 
of all races and nationalities will gain a deeper understanding 
and feel a kinship with African-Americans in Boston whose 
proud heritage and accomplishments contributed to the bet- 
terment of all mankind. 

I would like to express particular gratitude to Bank of Bos- 
ton which funded my proposal for this book and is making 
gifts of African- Americans in Boston to middle and high 
school libraries throughout Boston and to public libraries 
throughout Massachusetts. 

Joyce Ferriabough 
Media & Political Strategist 
and Public Relations Specialist 



10 



Introduction 



"History is a clock that people use to tell their time of day. It 
is a compass they use to find themselves on the map of hu- 
man geography. It tells them where they are, and what they 
are. Most important, an understanding of history tells [them] 
where they still must go, and what they still must be." 

Why Black History 
by John Henrik Clarke 
African-American Scholar and Writer 



In one sense, African-Americans in Boston: More Than 350 
Years was written to fulfill the meaning of history as defined 
by one of my favorite historians. In another sense, this book 
reflects much of my own personal journey through Boston's 
African-American history during the past 20 years. 

During my journey I have read more than 100 books and 
articles, collected and studied more than 200 photographs, 
conducted some 200 oral history interviews, studied early Af- 
rican-American newspapers, and found in public and private 
holdings old letters, documents, and artifacts related to the 
African-American experience in Boston. I wish you could 
have been on this journey with me; but since you could not, 
I have decided to share with you some of what I have learned 
so that you can take your own journey. 

My preparation for this book actually began some 17 years 
ago in February 1974 with the publication of my first article 
on "Boston's Black History" in the Bay State Banner. For 
some eight years thereafter my weekly column appeared, and 
readers would ask, "When will you put all this valuable in- 
formation into a book?" So it was that my scrapbook of more 
than 300 Banner articles provided the foundation on which 
to build this book. And the celebration of 350 years of Black 
presence in Boston provided the motivation and the project 
which led to publication of this book. During the three years 
since the celebration which marked the arrival of the first 
slaves here in 1638, I have expanded my earlier writing and 



11 



probed deeper in my research — and now the book is com- 
pleted. 

Much of what I discovered along my journey was buried 
in old books, magazines, and journals. Some of the history 
was hiding in old newspapers. Many photographs had been 
stored away, not lost but sleeping quietly, waiting for a new 
generation of eyes to bring the past into the present. Much 
of the history was carefully stored away in the memories of 
older residents who had been silently saying, "If only some- 
one would ask — if only someone would listen." 

African- Americans in Boston: More Than 350 Years is de- 
signed as a convenient gathering of important facts about 
people, places, and events in Boston's African life and his- 
tory. The journey of the African-American men and women 
in Boston since 1638 is not just a record of individual efforts 
and accomplishments in the struggle for freedom, but the 
story of their institutions as well — their churches, schools, 
social service agencies, civil rights groups — and their in- 
volvement in arts, sports, law, politics, and business. 

As you travel through the 350-plus years contained in this 
book, you will see that the contributions of individuals and 
organizations to community development have been wide- 
ranging, that there have been effective strategies and pro- 
grams, bringing progress and positive changes in the com- 
munity and throughout the city. You will find that African- 
Americans in Boston as far back as the mid- 1800s protested 
against segregated and low quality schools. 

You will learn that African-American women influenced 
virtually every area of human endeavor from earliest times 
— in law, politics, civil rights, the arts, and business. You 
will learn that in a city which is one of the medical capitals 
of the world, African-Americans have made revolutionary 
contributions to the development of medicine and health care; 
and while Boston had no Black elected officials in city or 
state government between 1896 and 1947 (over half a cen- 
tury), great gains have been made in electoral politics in the 
second half of the 20th century. 

Boston has been the birthplace or home of significant 19th- 
and 20th-century leaders such as William Monroe Trotter in 
journalism. Reverend Michael Haynes and Minister Louis 
Farrakhan in religion. Prince Hall and Melnea Cass in com- 
munity development, Maria Baldwin and Ruth Batson in ed- 
ucation, Maria Stewart and Mel King in politics, Harry Elam 
in law, Roland Hayes and Elma Lewis in the arts, Lewis 
Latimer in the field of invention, Eliza Mahoney in nursing, 
and Wendell Norman Johnson and David Ramsey in the mil- 
itary. 



12 



Certainly no one publication including this one can hold 
all the significant people, organizations, and achievements of 
African-Americans in Boston. It is my hope that this book 
will spur additional research, books, films, and other works 
that will continue to catalogue and chronicle African-Ameri- 
can history in Boston and New England which I have started 
with this publication. 

For the story to be complete, you and others must be in- 
volved. You and others must continue to research, discover, 
and share information about the past. Then the travel through 
time, which I have started here for you, will continue from 
the past to the present — and into the future. 

Enjoy your journey. 

Robert C. Hayden 
Author and Historian 



13 



Community Development 



17th Century 



In 1638, eight years after the original settlement The First Africans 

of Boston, a ship named Desire arrived in Boston 

with the first African slaves. Built in Marblehead, 

the merchant vessel brought its cargo of cotton, 

tobacco, and slaves from Providence Island in the 

Bahamas. 



There is reason to believe that Black Africans were 
in the Boston area even earlier than 1638. John 
Josselyn, an early writer of New England history, 
visited Noddles Island in Boston harbor in 1637 
and reported that he found in the possession of 
Samuel Maverick, three Negroes, two women and 
one man. Josselyn reported in his "Two Voyages 
to New England" that the women could not speak 
English and that the man seemed to have been a 
person of high rank in Africa. 



The year 1644 was a momentous date in the his- New England Slave Trade 

tory of the New England slave trade. Before that 
time Massachusetts merchants had occasionally 
brought in Black Africans from the West Indies; 
but in that year Boston traders imported slaves di- 
rectly from Africa, when an association of busi- 
nessmen sent three ships there "for gold dust and 
Negroes." 



Bostian Ken of Dorchester was perhaps the first First Black Landowner 

Black landowner in Massachusetts. In 1656 he 
owned a house and lot in Dorchester, as well as 
more than "four acres of land planted in wheat." 



Africans in Boston 
before 1638? 



15 



18th Century 



Prince Hall In 1787 Prince Hall founded Boston's African 

Lodge Number 459, the first African Masonic 
Lodge in the country and the beginning of Black 
Masonry in the United States. The Lodge, cur- 
rently located at 18 Washington Street in the Grove 
Hall section of Dorchester, is one of the few Ma- 
sonic lodges — Black or white — to have its orig- 
inal royal charter, now preserved in a vault at State 
Street Bank. 




Four Black men — Cato Howe, Plato Turner, Parting Ways Settlement 

Quamany Quash, and Prince Goodwin — 
founded a small community (Parting Ways) in 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1790. While they had 
only Anglo-American materials in their environ- 
ment, they brought their West African culture to 
the community. All had been slaves and had 
gained their freedom for their military perform- 
ance in the American Revolution. 



There were 766 African-Americans (4 percent of African-Americans in 1790 
the population) counted in Boston in the first 
United States Census in 1790. 



In 1796 a group of Boston Blacks founded the Af- 
rican Society for Mutual Aid and Charity. The So- 
ciety provided social-welfare services, financial 
relief, and job placement to its members and their 
families. 



19th Century 



Between 1800 and 1900 most of Boston's African- 
American residents lived in the West End, be- 
tween Pinckney and Cambridge Streets and be- 
tween Joy and Charles Streets — a neighborhood 
now called the north slope of Beacon Hill. 



By 1800 some 1,100 Black Bostonians made up Black Bostonians in 1800 

one of the largest free African-American commu- 
nities in North America. 



In 19th-century Black Boston, centered on the Beacon Hill Barbershops 

north slope of Beacon Hill, the local barbershop 
was an important forum for the discussion of po- 
litical ideas, the exchange of community infor- 
mation, and the posting of job openings. Peter 
Howard's shop and John J. Smith's barbershop, 
both at the foot of Beacon Hill, were meeting 
places for anti-slavery forces and stations of the 
Underground Railroad. 



African Society for Mutual 
Aid and Charity 



Early Black 
Neighborhood 



17 



African Meeting House 




African Meeting House In 1806 free Blacks in Boston, led by Cato Gard- 

ner, raised $7,700 to enable Black craftsmen and 
laborers to build the African Meeting House. The 
Meeting House served as an anchor for the Black 
settlement on Beacon Hill throughout the 1800s. 
Until 1898 the Meeting House served as the home 
of the First African Baptist Church in Boston. 



Black Population by 1890 In 1820 the Black population of Boston was 1,690; 

in 1890 it was 8,125. 



Juvenile Garrison In the 1830s and 1840s Black Bostonians were 

Independent Society providing for the education and intellectual stim- 

ulation of their youth. The Juvenile Garrison In- 
dependent Society, mostly teenagers, provided 



18 



Black history education for themselves and ser- 
vices for the community — sponsoring lectures, 
community fix-up and self-help activities, and 
anti-slavery rallies. There were several youth 
choirs, like the Garrison Juvenile Choir, which 
performed its first concert in 1833 at the African 
Baptist Church. 



The African-American Female Intelligence Soci- Female Intelligence Society 

ety was established in 1832 as both a literary and 
a mutual-aid group. The Society sponsored lec- 
tures "to become a moral force in the community" 
and offered health insurance for its members. 



In the early 1830s Jane Putnam and Susan Paul Temperance Society 

formed a temperance society. In 1833 the group 

was responsible for 114 African-Americans taking 

the "cold water pledge" denouncing liquor. Two 

years later in 1835 the New England Temperance 

Society of People of Color was formed. 



The United Daughters of Zion, organized Novem- 
ber 6, 1845, was the first women's beneficial group 
— Black or white — in Boston. 


United Daughters of Zion 


A group of Black Bostonians founded a local 


Odd Fellows 


chapter of the Odd Fellows, a fraternal organiza- 




tion, in 1846. 





For 84 years (1860-1944), The Home for Aged 
Colored Women on Beacon Hill provided a resi- 
dence and social services for hundreds of Boston's 
African-American female elderly, many of them 
ex-slaves who had worked in Boston as domestics 
after the Civil War. The Rev. Leonard Grimes, 
minister of Twelfth Baptist Church, and James 
and Rebecca Clark were leading founders of the 
Home. 



The Boston Black population numbered 2,348 in Black Population 1880-1920 

1865. By 1880 (after the Civil War), it had climbed 

to 5,873. Throughout the entire period from the 

Civil War to World War I, Boston had as large a 

proportion of African-American residents as New 

York, Chicago, Detroit, and Cleveland; the Black 

population represented 1.4 percent in 1870 and 2.2 

percent by 1920. 



Juvenile Garrison 
Independent Society 



Home for Aged Colored 
Women 



19 



Black Neighborhoods 
1890-1920 



Around 1890 Blacks began to depart from Beacon 
Hill and move into the South End. By 1920 the 
exodus from the Hill was complete. 



Woman's Era Club The Woman's Era Club was founded in 1892 by 

Josephine L. Ruffin to further the welfare of the 
"Negro race" generally and of "Negro women" in 
particular. 



The National Federation of Afro-American 
Women was founded at Boston's Charles Street 
African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1895. The 
following year it united with the Washington Na- 
tional League to form the National Association of 
Colored Women. 



20th Century 



The Richard Earle Pioneer Club served the Black 
railway workers in Boston during the first quarter 
of the century. Providing sleeping quarters, meals, 
and a place to relax for the Pullman porters, din- 
ing car waiters, and chefs during "off hours," The 
Pioneer Club was an important community insti- 
tution for this class of Black workers. 



Black Literary Societies Two important Black literary societies were estab- 

lished shortly after the turn of the century: The 
Boston Literary and Historical Society, organized 
in 1901; the St. Mark Musical and Literary Union 
in 1902. 



Harriet Tubman House In 1904 the Harriet Tubman House was founded 

in Boston's South End neighborhood by six Black 
women who donated their time, resources, and 
even their property to establish a settlement house 
to "assist working girls (from the South) in chari- 
table ways." Julia O. Henson (a personal friend 
of Harriet Tubman), Cornelia Robinson, Annie W. 
Young, Fannie R. Contine, Jestina A. Johnson, 
Sylvia Fern, and Hibernia Waddell opened the first 
Tubman House at 25-27 Holyoke Street as a lodg- 
ing place for Black females who had recently mi- 
grated from the South, when many social 
institutions were closed to African-Americans in 



National Federation of 
Afro-American Women 



Richard Earle 
Pioneer Club 



20 



Boston. Today, some 86 years later, The Harriet 
Tubman House of United South End Settlements, 
located on the corner of Columbus and Massachu- 
setts Avenues, provides a wide range of social ser- 
vices to all needy people in the South End for the 
development of the community. 



From 1907 to the early 1970s the Robert Gould Robert Gould Shaw House 

Shaw House served as a major social agency for 
Black people in Boston. 



By 1910 Boston's Black population was 13,500, Black Population 

and in 1940 it was only 23,000. Between 1940 and 1910-1980 
1960 the Black population of Boston jumped to 
63,000, and by 1980 it was approximately 120,000. 



The Knights of Pythias was a fraternal and benev- Knights of Pythias 

olent order in Boston's small and growing Black 
community in lower Roxbury that provided effec- 
tive health insurance and death benefits to widows 
and orphans. Anchored in its own building at the 
corner of Ruggles and Washington Streets, it 
helped maintain the family ties that knit the Black 
community together. 



The League of Women for Community Service was 
founded in 1918 as a "comfort home" for World 
War I Black soldiers in Boston. Still operating to- 
day at 558 Massachusetts Avenue in Boston, this 
Black women's group has consistently provided 
charitable, cultural, and educational services. For 
more than 70 years it has served as a meeting place 
for Black historians, artists, and sororities, fra- 
ternities, and other civic groups. 



The Urban League of Boston was established in Urban League of Boston 

May 1919 and has been dedicated to the economic 
and social development of Boston's African- 
American people and neighborhoods for 70 years. 
In the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s especially, the Bos- 
ton affiliate of the National Urban League was a 
significant force in gaining job opportunities for 
Blacks with major employers in Boston. In recent 
years it has sponsored a broad range of educa- 
tional services, from day care to teen counseling 
and mentoring for Black youth. 



League of Women for 
Community Service 



21 



The first two African-Americans to serve as police 
officers in the Boston PoHce Department were 
Charles Montier and Joshua McClain, who were 
appointed on October 15, 1919. Their appoint- 
ments were the result of vacancies during the Bos- 
ton Police strike of 1919. Following these two 
officers, 33 more African-Americans were ap- 
pointed between late 1919 and 1923. 



Women's Service Club The Women's Service Club at 464 Massachusetts 

Avenue has been a community institution for over 
70 years. In 1933 at the height of the Depression 
it pioneered a successful women's employment 
program; during World War II it provided services 
for Black soldiers. It spearheaded efforts to bring 
protection to Black domestic workers under the 
state labor laws. Today its elderly service program 
and food and clothing emergency program con- 
tinue the tradition of civic responsibility. 



Hattie B. Cooper Community The Hattie B. Cooper Community Center, started 
Center in the early 1920s by Union Methodist Church 

(now Union United Methodist Church) as a settle- 
ment house, is still "in business." Described in 
church conference minutes of 1922 as "a bee-hive 
of helpful activities among colored people of the 
South End," it continues to provide social services 
after nearly 70 years. 



For the first half of the 20th century the entire 
South End and lower Roxbury community be- 
came the traditional and historic Black section of 
Boston. Until 1950 most Blacks resided in a nar- 
row geographic strip bounded by Columbus Ave- 
nue and Washington Street and Dartmouth Street 
and what is now New Dudley Street. The move- 
ment of Black families to upper Roxbury and 
North Dorchester occurred in the 1940-1960 pe- 
riod. 



Melnea Cass Melnea Cass (1896-1978), who fought vigorously 

and successfully for the improvement of services 
and resources for Boston's Black community for 
over 60 years, had a new thoroughfare named in 
her honor in 1981, Melnea Cass Boulevard in the 
lower Roxbury neighborhood of Boston. 



Early African-American 
Police Officers 



Black Neighborhoods 
1920-1960 



22 



Melnea Cass 



From her arrival in Boston in 1927 until her death Legendary NAACP Leader 
at age 94, E. Alice Taylor (1892-1986) served as a 
business woman, church leader, and Boston 
NAACP official, leaving a legend of 58 continu- 
ous years of community service. For 50 years she 
served as an officer and board member of the Bos- 
ton branch of the NAACP. In 1950, when the 
NAACP's national convention was held in Bos- 
ton, she walked the streets of the South End and 
lower Roxbury finding private homes to accom- 
modate the 400 conventioneers not welcome in 
Boston's hotels. She was the oldest living active 
member of the Boston NAACP at the time of her 
death in 1986. 



Maceo Harris, a 12-year-old student at the Sher- Young Master of Ceremonies 
man School in Roxbury, was the master of cere- 
monies for Boston's observance of Benjamin 
Franklin's birthday anniversary in 1932. The cer- 
emony was conducted in front of Franklin's statue 
on the lawn at City Hall. Mayor James Curley said 
of young Harris — "In all my long experience I 
have never found any presiding officer with more 
ability or dignity than the distinguished master of 
ceremonies." 



23 



Rev. Samuel Laviscount 



Edward L. Cooper, Sr. In 1933 Edward L. Cooper, Sr., was the first Af- 

rican-American to be hired to manage a major 
food chain in Boston, the First National Store on 
Shawmut Avenue. From 1942-48 he was Deputy 
Secretary of the Urban League and served as Ex- 
ecutive Secretary from 1948-54. From 1954-62 he 
served as the first Executive Director of Boston's 
NAACP. A co-founder of the Metropolitan Bos- 
ton Chapter of the National Caucus and Center on 
Black Aged, he served as chapter president from 
1981-1988. 



St. Mark Social Center In 1934 under the late Rev. Samuel L. Laviscount, 

St. Mark Congregational Church established the 
first social service agency for children and youth 
in upper Roxbury. The center pioneered in youth 
development — "getting the boys off" the street," 
said the Reverend Laviscount. The St. Mark So- 
cial Center operated until the early 1960s, when 
the building was demolished as a result of urban 
renewal. 



24 




Lucy Mitchell Julian Steele 



Lucy M. Mitchell became the first African- Amer- Early Childhood Educator 
ican elected to the Board of Directors of the Bos- 
ton YWCA in 1941, where she served for seven 
years. Previously, in the mid- 1930s she pioneered 
the development of a model nursery school at the 
Robert Gould Shaw House and led efforts to im- 
prove and license day-care centers. A leading ed- 
ucator in the early childhood education field, she 
was an early consultant to the now famous na- 
tional Head Start Program. 



Organized with 58 members from 25 diff'erent NAACP Youth Council 

community youth groups and churches in 1936, 
the Boston Youth Council of NAACP held a mass 
meeting a year later protesting educational ine- 
quality in the Boston schools. 



On May 1, 1936 the Robert Gould Shaw House Breezy Meadows Camp 

bought Breezy Meadows Camp in Holliston, Mas- 
sachusetts, which provided summer camping for 
Boston's Black children and youth until the mid- 
1960s. 



Julian Steele, a Boston Latin School and Harvard Commissioner of Community 
graduate, as the director of the Robert Gould Affairs 
Shaw House in the 1930s, was a leader in the ex- 
pansion of social, recreational, and educational 
programs for the youth of the South End and 



25 



lower Roxbury. From 1938-49 he directed the 
Armstrong-Hemingway Foundation. He served as 
Boston's NAACP president from 1945-48 and as 
president of the Urban League of Greater Boston. 
Later he served on the Massachusetts State Parole 
Board, as the State's first Commissioner of Com- 
munity Affairs in 1965, and as Deputy Commis- 
sioner of the Massachusetts Department of 
Commerce. 



Professional and Business From its founding in 1946 by Black professional 

Men's Club and business men of Boston until its closing in 

1987, the Professional and Business Men's Club, 
also called the P&B, was a unique community in- 
stitution at 542 Massachusetts Avenue. It was "a 
place where you could get to know 'something' or 
'somebody' that could be of help to you, a place 
where you could have a good time socially, get 
professional and personal support through friend- 
ship and social exchange," said John Bynoe, the 
club's owner and director during its last 25 years. 
The P&B was a place where ideas were nourished 
which led to the creation of a number of com- 
munity programs and agencies. 



Freedom House Since 1949 Freedom House in Roxbury, founded 

by Muriel and Otto Snowden, has worked through 
bi-racial efforts to reduce barriers to education, 
employment, and housing opportunities for Afri- 
can-Americans in Boston. Growing from the "Up- 
per Roxbury Community Project," started in the 
Snowdens' living room, this community-based in- 
stitution today focuses on an array of educational 
programs for children, youth, college students, and 
adults. 



Commissioner of Community 
Affairs 



John Bynoe at the P & B Club 



26 




Otto and Muriel Snowden Robert Coard 



In 1952 Madeline Kountze Dugger Kelly of Med- "Mother of the Year" 

ford became the first Black woman to be named 
Massachusetts Mother of the Year. 



Black migration from 1960 to the present contin- Black Neighborhoods 

ued into most of Dorchester and Mattapan. Dur- 1960-1990 
ing the 1950-1990 period Black neighborhoods 
also developed in Jamaica Plain, Hyde Park, Ros- 
lindale, and the Allston section of Brighton. 



Since 1962, Action for Boston Community Devel- Action for Boston 

opment, Inc. (ABCD) has fostered community de- Community Development 

velopment in the city. For over 20 years Robert M. 
Coard has served as director, one of the longest 
continuous tenures for a community agency leader 
in the city of Boston. On the human side of urban 
renewal, ABCD has been a beacon for upward 
mobility for families and youth through educa- 
tion, job training, and encouragement of new so- 
cial, economic, and educational institutions. 



The Roxbury Multi-Service Center (RMSC) got its Roxbury 
beginning in 1964 as a three-year demonstration Multi-Service Center 

project, after Helen Y. Davis and Judge Harry J. 
Elam and other community leaders became 
alarmed by the large numbers of low-income peo- 
ple moving into Roxbury and Dorchester at a time 



27 



Roxbury when public and social support services were dis- 

Multi"service Center appearing. Once a small pilot project funded by 

the Ford Foundation, the Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare, the Office of Economic 
Opportunity, and the Boston Foundation, RMSC 
is over 25 years old and owns four buildings from 
which its programs operate: among them, youth 
development, adult and family services, a family 
housing shelter, and assessment and counseling 
which include housing assistance and crime pre- 
vention. Perhaps the greatest indicator of RMSC's 
contributions to community development is the 
fact that it was instrumental in the creation of La 
Alianza, an agency serving the Hispanic commu- 
nity, and the Quincy-Geneva Housing Corpora- 
tion, which has already renovated several hundred 
units for low- and moderate-income residents. 



Museum of The Museum of Afro-American History was es- 

Afro-American History tablished in Boston in 1964. Its leading founders 

were Dean Howard Thurman of Boston University 
and his wife Sue Bailey Thurman. The Museum 
was established "to advance knowledge, through 
historic examination," about the African-Ameri- 
can presence in Boston and New England. The 
Museum's first curator and manager was J. Mar- 
cus Mitchell. Serving as director for more than 15 
years, Byron Rushing, who currently serves as 
state representative, built a record of dynamic 
growth and development for the Museum. In 1987 
the Museum found a permanent home when it re- 
opened the doors of the oldest standing Black 
church in the nation — the African Meeting 
House, built in 1806 on Smith Court, Beacon Hill. 
Under the leadership of Ruth M. Batson and 
Henry Hampton in the late 1980s, the Museum 
has become a vibrant and growing center of Afri- 
can-American educational and cultural activity. 
Monica Fairbairn was appointed executive direc- 
tor in the fall of 1989. 



Advocate for Charles "Chuck" Turner, executive director of the 

Community Development Center for Community Action, has been a com- 

munity organizer, activist, and advocate for Bos- 
ton's African-American community for over 20 
years. He has a record of effectively organizing 
people to confront city and state agencies for jobs, 



28 



affordable housing, and equitable land use. In 
1967 he organized Mothers for Adequate Welfare; 
in the late 1960s he led the Black United Front to 
gain adequate funding for community economic 
and educational development. Turner was a lead- 
ing architect of the Boston Jobs Coalition whose 
efforts helped create the Boston Jobs for Boston 
Residents Ordinance, now in effect, guaranteeing 
a percentage of jobs for people of color and 
women on all city construction projects. 



In 1968 a group of neighbors from Dorchester Lena Park Associates 

formed Lena Park Associates to address the press- 
ing housing needs that existed in the burgeoning 
Black neighborhoods of North Dorchester and 
Mattapan. The group quickly realized that it had 
more to do than just address the housing situa- 
tion. Today the Lena Park Community Develop- 
ment Corporation, now in its 22nd year in 
Roxbury, Dorchester, and Mattapan, provides a 
range of programs: tutoring and academic advise- 
ment, career development and employment coun- 
seling, day care, young adult social development, 
family advocacy, and youth recreational activities, 
including a summer camp for children. Most re- 
cently Lena Park Development Corporation has 
rehabilitated a number of housing units through- 
out the community it serves. 



Aswalos House, a satellite of Boston's YWCA at Aswalos House 

the corner of Maple and Seaver Streets in upper 

Roxbury, was opened in the Black community in 

1968 and has continuously provided educational, 

social, and recreational services for young girls and 

women for over 20 years. 



Advocate for 
Community Development 



"Chuck" Turner 




Roxbury Action Program The Roxbury Action Program (RAP), led by 

George Morrison and Lloyd King, was established 
in 1969 in the Highland Park section of Roxbury 
to renew a severely blighted neighborhood. Dur- 
ing the past 20 years RAP has rehabilitated 260 
units of housing for nearly 800 people and brought 
major physical improvements to the landscape. 



Black Population in 1970 In 1970, 51 percent of Boston's African-Ameri- 

cans had been born outside of Massachusetts and 
had migrated to the state, and most of the new- 
comers (29 percent of the entire Black population) 
were of southern origin. 



Long Bay Management Since 1970 Long Bay Management, led by foun- 

der and president Kenneth Guscott, has built, ren- 
ovated, and managed more than 1,000 housing 
units in Roxbury. 



Successful Housing The Lower Roxbury Community Corporation un- 

Development der the leadership of Ralph D. Smith, between 

1972 and 1980, developed housing for the elderly 
and low-income residents and townhouses with 570 
housing units. Organized in 1966, LRCC was the 
first neighborhood group to initiate and develop 
housing in the country. Ralph D. Smith was 
named the American Society of Planning Officials 
(ASPO) Planner of the Year in 1974. The ASPO 
honored him "for leading and validating a neigh- 
borhood voice, for initiating plans and imple- 
menting techniques to upgrade the inner city 
environment, and for making the decision process 
work better," through the Lower Roxbury Com- 
munity Corporation. 




Ralph Smith 



30 



Five African-Americans of Boston have received MacArthur Fellows 

the prestigious MacArthur Fellows award from the 
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 
in Chicago: Elma Lewis (1981) for Arts Educa- 
tion; Robert Moses (1982) Philosophy and Edu- 
cation; Sara Lawrence Lightfoot (1984) Sociology 
of Education; Muriel Snowden (1987) Commu- 
nity Organization; and George Russell (1989) Jazz 
Composition and Theory. MacArthur Fellows re- 
ceive financial awards to enhance their creative ac- 
complishments. 



In 1983 City Councilor Bruce C. Boiling intro- 
duced and sponsored a new and revolutionary 
concept to the Boston urban development scene. 
His parcel-to-parcel linkage plan, accepted by the 
Boston City Council and Boston Redevelopment 
Authority, requires developers of downtown com- 
mercial real estate to contribute funds for housing 
improvements in the city's depressed neighbor- 
hoods. The linkage concept, researched and fash- 
ioned by political strategist Joyce Ferriabough, has 
resulted in the leveraging of linkage monies for a 
number of projects to revitalize Boston's neigh- 
borhoods. 



The anti-drug program, Drop-A-Dime/Report-A- Drop-A-Dime 
Crime, Inc., was founded in 1983 by Georgette 
Watson and Rev. Bruce Wall to combat the ramp- 
ant drug trade, especially in the African-Ameri- 
can communities. As executive director, Watson 
used a telephone hot-line approach for anonymous 
callers to inform police of drug trafficking "on the 
streets." The program and Mrs. Watson were 
hailed regionally and nationally for taking on the 
drug problem in Boston's neighborhoods. 



Doris Bunte, a tenants' rights activist during the Housing Authority Director 
1960s and 1970s, and a former Housing Develop- 
ment tenant, became director of the Boston Hous- 
ing Authority in 1984. 



Anna Faith Jones became the first African- Amer- Major Foundation Director 
ican woman to head a major American founda- 
tion when she was appointed director of The 
Boston Foundation in 1985. Since her appoint- 
ment The Boston Foundation has recommitted it- 
self to aid for the disadvantaged. 31 



Linkage to Neighborhood 
Growth 



The Organization for a New Equality (O.N.E.) 
was founded in 1985 by Rev. Charles Stith, Senior 
Pastor of Union United Methodist Church. 
O.N.E. is a local and national vehicle for mount- 
ing strategies to develop economic opportunity for 
"people of color" and racial harmony in cities and 
on college campuses across the country. In 1990, 
after negotiating with the Massachusetts Bankers 
Association (representing over 100 banks), Rev. 
Stith, President of O.N.E., led the estabhshment 
of a multimillion-dollar statewide program to cre- 
ate revolving loan funds to increase affordable 
housing, improve access to mortgages and bank- 
ing services, and provide capital to entrepreneurs 
in low-income and minority neighborhoods that 
have been historically underserved by the banks. 



Martha's Vineyard For more than 100 years the island of Martha's 

Vineyard (seven miles off the southeast coast of 
Massachusetts) has been an important summer- 
time haven for Black Bostonians. In the late 1800s 
Blacks first came to the island to work for whites 
and some earned enough money to gain small 
summer vacation homes for themselves. Shearer 
Cottage was opened in Oak Bluffs at the turn of 
the century — the island's first establishment that 
allowed Blacks to rent. Since the 1950s the island 
has attracted Blacks each summer from the entire 
East Coast and Washington, D.C. Several gener- 
ations of families, both famous and ordinary, as 
summer vacationers and year-round residents have 
turned the once-poor village of Oak Bluffs into a 
Black mecca for educational, cultural, civic, and 
social tradition for Blacks of all backgrounds. The 
Martha's Vineyard NAACP, The Cottagers (a 
Black women's civic and charitable group), and 
the annual Oak Bluffs Labor Day weekend tennis 
tournament has become institutions in this impor- 
tant colony for Black Bostonians. 



Organization for a 
New Equality 



32 




33 



Civil Rights 



17th Century 



Slavery Law in Massachusetts Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were the first 

colonies to authorize slavery through legislation as 
part of the 1641 Body of Liberties, a mere three 
years after the first Blacks arrived in Boston. 



18th Century 



First Anti-Slavery Treatise "The Selling of Joseph," a sermon by white cler- 
gyman Samuel Sewall, first published in Boston in 
1700, became the first public anti-slavery treatise. 
Liberty, he wrote, being "The real value unto life; 
none ought to part with it themselves or deprive 
others of it but upon mature consideration." A 
strong anti-slavery treatise for its time, Sewall's 
writing provoked slaves in Boston to mount a de- 
termined effort to obtain their freedom. 



Black Population 1708-1752 Throughout the colonial era Boston contained the 

largest number of Blacks in Massachusetts. The 
flourishing slave trade and increased birthrate ex- 
panded the Black population from 400 in 1708 to 
1,374 in 1742. In 1708 there were 33 free Blacks 
in Boston. In 1742 one-third of all Blacks in Mas- 
sachusetts lived in Boston. In 1752 Blacks num- 
bered 1,541, one-tenth of the population. 



Boston Common "Out of In 1742, when whites feared uprisings against 

Bounds" oppression from the heavy concentration of slaves 

in Boston, the Boston Common was "out of 
bounds" for Blacks and American Indians. The 
Black community of the city fought this restric- 
tion, but it was not until July 4, 1836 that they 
were allowed to use the Common with whites. 



34 



Anti-slavery meeting on the Boston Common 



The year 1773 saw increasing agitation among 
Blacks in Boston and Massachusetts for an end to 
slavery. On January 6, then in April, and again in 
May, they sent petitions first to royal Governor 
General Thomas Gage and next to the Massachu- 
setts legislature, denouncing slavery as destructive 
of natural rights and seeking the right to earn 
money to purchase their freedom. Finally, in 1780 
slavery was abolished in Massachusetts when a 
Declaration of Rights was added to the state con- 
stitution. In 1781, as a result of a court decision 
in the case Commonwealth v. Jennison, slavery in 
the state was declared unconstitutional. 




African-Americans on the Boston Common 

35 



Slavery Abolished in 
Massachusetts 



CAUTION ! ! 

COLORED PEOPLE 

OF BOSTON, ONE & ALL, 

Ton are hereby respectfully CAUTIONED aBd 
advised, to avoid coDversing witli the ^ 

Watchmen and Police Officers 

of Boston, 

For since the recent ORDER OF THE MAYOR & 
ALiDli FTEN, they are empowered to act as 

KIDNAPPERS 

AND 

Slave Calidheri, 

And they hare already been actually einployed ^iM 
KIDNAPPING, CATCHING, AND KEEPING 
SL.ATES. Therefore, if you value y|Hir LIBERTY, 
and the W^eifai^e of the Fugitives aimong you. Shun 
them in ef^ery possible manner, as so mapy MOUJVJE^Si 
on the traek of the most unfortunate of jour race. 

Keep a Sharp Look Out for 
KIDNAPPERS, and have 
TOP EYE open. 

APRIL 24, 1851. 

36 



19th Century 



When a group of Black Bostonians founded the First Abolitionist Group 

Massachusetts General Colored Association in 
1826 to fight for an end to slavery, they became 
Boston's primary abolition organization. 



With his publication of Appeal to the Colored Cit- David Walker's Appeal 

izens of the World, urging slaves to fight for their 
freedom, David Walker created an influential piece 
of anti-slavery literature that helped shape the 
posture of Black militancy of the 1830s and be- 
yond. 



Hailed as America's first Black political writer. Early Political Writer 

Maria W. Stewart, an early Boston activist, cham- 
pioned women's rights and Black self-improve- 
ment in a series of speeches and essays written 
between 1831 and 1833. She was probably the first 
Black American to lecture publicly in defense of 
women's rights. Speaking from the pulpit of Bos- 
ton's African Meeting House, she was a clear fore- 
runner to generations of the most influential Black 
activists. 



While The Liberator newspaper (1831-1869), The Liberator 

founded by the militant white abolitionist William 
Lloyd Garrison, was an anti-slavery organ, it was 
also a journal for Black Americans throughout 
Boston and the East. The paper provided a net- 
work with its listing of death notices and social 
events, discussion of politics, and advertising of 
employment/housing opportunities. The Libera- 
tor even provided information on the types and 
degree of discrimination a Black traveler might 
expect to encounter. 




Liberator masthead 
37 



New England 
Anti-Slavery Society 



The New England Anti-Slavery Society, successor 
to the Massachusetts General Colored Associa- 
tion, was founded at Boston's African Meeting 
House in 1832, becoming the leading, most elo- 
quent, most effective voice in the battle against 
slavery. 



Female Anti-Slavery Leader 



Susan Paul of Boston, daughter of Rev. Thomas 
Paul, served as a vice president of the Second An- 
nual Anti-Slavery Convention of American 
Women in Philadelphia in 1839. 



Frederick Douglass 

38 




Frederick Douglass gave his first anti-slavery Frederick Douglass 

speech on Nantucket Island in August 1841, a 
speech which propelled him into the anti-slavery 
cause. He soon found his way to Boston where he 
became a leader of the movement. 



Charles Lenox Remond (1810-1873) was perhaps Charles Lenox Remond 

the boldest agent of the Massachusetts Anti-Slav- 
ery Society and possibly the most eloquent of the 
Black abolitionists of antebellum Boston. He had 
a national and international reputation as an anti- 
slavery leader, and was appointed as an American 
delegate to the World Anti-Slavery Convention in 
London in 1840. In 1842 he was the first of his 
race to address the Massachusetts House of Rep- 
resentatives, protesting segregated railroad accom- 
modations in the state. 



Born in Salem, Sarah Remond (1826-1894) was a 
leading organizer of women for the Massachusetts 
Anti-Slavery Society in the 1840s and 1850s. Pro- 
testing segregation in churches, theatres, and other 
public places, she won a civil court suit after being 
ejected from the Howard Athenaeum in Boston, 
which had advertised that for all performances 
colored people would be admitted only to the gal- 
lery. 




39 



Women's Anti-Slavery 
Organizer 




Lewis Hayden 



In the decades prior to the Civil War, Blacks in 
Boston were prominent in developing and operat- 
ing one of the principal stations of the "Under- 
ground Railroad" that helped escaped slaves from 
the South find refuge in the North or in Canada. 
From his home at 66 Phillips Street on Beacon 
Hill (now a national historic site), Lewis Hayden 
(1815-1889), the leading Black abolitionist in Bos- 
ton, directed the secret operations of the "Under- 
ground Railroad." More than one-fourth of all 
fugitive slaves who passed through Boston were 
hidden, fed, and clothed there by Hayden and his 
wife Harriet. In May 1853 there were 13 fugitive 
slaves under their roof. 



In September 1855, after a long boycott of Black- 
only schools led by William C. Nell and a petition 
to the legislature that schools in Boston be deseg- 
regated, Blacks in Boston were free to attend pre- 
viously all-white schools. 



20th Century 



William Monroe Trotter's In 1901 William Monroe Trotter (1873-1934) 

Equal Rights League founded the Boston Equal Rights League to push 

for civil and human rights for Black people. The 
League operated nine years before the establish- 
ment of the NAACP (National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People). 



Boston's Underground 
Railroad 



School Desegregation 
in 1855 



40 



William E. B. DuBois (1868-1963), born in Great William E. B. DuBois 

Barrington, Massachusetts, was the first African- 
American to receive the Ph.D. degree from Har- 
vard (1895). His thesis was on the African Slave 
Trade. DuBois was influenced by Boston's fiery 
and "radical" civil rights leader William Monroe 
Trotter in the early 1900s and was a founder of 
the NAACP in 1910. 



The Boston Branch of the NAACP, the first offi- Oldest NAACP Branch 

cial and now the oldest branch of the NAACP, 
developed out of the Boston Committee to Ad- 
vance the Cause of the Negro, established in 1910. 
Gathering in 1912 at the Park Street Church, 56 
Bostonians (Black and white) received the official 
Branch charter which was inscribed with the state- 
ment of purpose: "7b uplift the colored men and 
women of this country by securing to them full 
enjoyment of their rights as citizens, justice in all 
courts, and equality of opportunity everywhere.'' 



In 1915 all of Boston's Black institutions, agen- "Birth of a Nation" Protest 

cies, and community leaders united to protest the 
showing of the film, "Birth of a Nation," at the 
Tremont Theatre because the film portrayed south- 
ern Blacks as depraved and glorified the Ku Klux 
Klan. Despite the collective protest, the city al- 
lowed the film to complete its scheduled run 
through the summer. Six years later when the film 
was scheduled for a rerun at the Shubert Theatre, 
William Monroe Trotter and the Boston NAACP 
forced the banning of the film with some 600 
members of Boston's Black community attending 
the hearing on the film. 



Butler Wilson presided over the Boston Branch of NAACP President 

the NAACP from 1916 to 1936, the longest pres- for 20 Years 

idential tenure in its history. 



Led by two Black doctors, W O. Taylor and Wil- Black Nurses Admitted 

liam Worthy, a committee of Black Bostonians that to City Hospital 

included Guardian editor William Monroe Trotter 
successfully championed the cause of two Black 
high school graduates seeking admission to the 
nurses' training program at Boston's City Hospital 
in 1929. With this action, the committee forced 
the hospital to integrate its training program. 



41 



Florence LeSuerer 



First Female President In 1948, when Florence LeSuerer was elected pres- 

of NAACP Branch ident of Boston's branch of the NAACP, she be- 

came the first woman in the country to head a 
local NAACP chapter. She served as branch pres- 
ident from 1948 to 1951. 



Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., In April 1965 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a 
Leads Rally graduate of Boston University School of Theology, 

led a march from Roxbury to a rally on Boston 
Common to protest the evils of school segregation 
in Boston. Dr. King spoke at the State House 
where he appealed to the Massachusetts legisla- 
ture to end discrimination in housing and de facto 
segregation in Boston's schools. In June the legis- 
lature passed The Racial Imbalance Act requiring 
school desegregation in Boston. 



Martin Luther King, Jr., in Boston, 
April 1965 




42 




Dr. King leading march down Columbus Avenue to the Boston Common 



43 



School Desegregation Suit In 1972 a suit was filed by the Boston Branch 

NAACP against the Boston School Committee for 
maintaining a segregated school district and low 
quality education for its mostly Black student 
population. When Federal Court Judge W. Arthur 
Garrity, Jr., ordered a school desegregation plan 
in Boston in June 1974, a class of Black parent 
plaintiffs and the Boston Branch NAACP won a 
major victory. 



Firefighters Association 



The Vulcans, Boston's African-American fire- 
fighters' association, was formed in 1972. At that 
time there had been only 17 Black and Hispanic 
firemen in the history of the city's fire department. 
When the Vulcans filed a court suit against the 
city of Boston for discrimination in hiring prac- 
tices, the city admitted to the charges. Today there 
are more than 400 African- American firefighters 
in the force of 2,000. 



Opening Doors 
of Opportunity 



Several organizations have strong track records of 
service to the African-American community. Three 
such organizations have worked for more than 20 
years to open doors of opportunity for Blacks: the 
Contractors Association of Boston (CAB); the 
Black Patrolmen's Association, currently known as 
MAMLEO (the Massachusetts Association of 
Afro-American Law Enforcement Organizations); 
and the Vietnam Veterans Benefits Clearinghouse, 
founded by Ralph Cooper and Ron Armstead. 



Housing Discrimination 
Victories 



In 1989 the Boston Branch of the NAACP won 
two major lawsuits for housing discrimination. 
Both cases were unique because they were the "first 
of their kind" in the country to award individuals 
monetary compensation, according to Attorney 
Dianne Wilkerson, the NAACP Housing Commit- 
tee Chairperson. The first case filed in 1978 against 
the U.S. Office of Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment (HUD) took 11 years to move through the 
courts. The court ruled that HUD failed in its sta- 
tutory duty to monitor federal funds and in doing 
so contributed to discriminatory practices against 
Black residents in Boston. This ruling brought 
sweeping institutional changes in federal housing 
expenditures and requires monitoring and enforce- 
ment by the Boston Fair Housing Commission. 



44 



The second case was filed in May 1988 against the u . ,^ 

^ „ ^ ,. ^ ...... . Housing Discrimination 

Boston Housing Authority for discrimination in its Victories 

selection policy of segregating prospective tenants 
who were Black, Hispanic, and Asian-American, 
by "systematically steering hundreds of Black 
families away from predominantly white housing 
projects in Charlestown, South Boston, and East 
Boston." In addition to the monetary compensa- 
tion afforded to the victims, plaintiffs not already 
in public housing will get first choice of vacancies. 
The NAACP victory also included the creation of 
a Community Benefits Fund, financed at half a 
million dollars, to develop projects for integrated 
housing in Boston. 



45 



Education 



18th Century 


The Fight for 
School Equality 


In 1787 Primus Hall and other Black leaders pe- 
titioned the Massachusetts legislature for equal 
school facilities for Black children. 


Primus Hall's School 


A school for Black children was begun on Beacon 
Hill in the home of Primus Hall in 1798. 


19th Century 


First Black Public School 


In 1808 the first "public" school for Boston's Af- 
rican-American children was opened in the base- 
ment of the African Meeting House on Beacon 
Hill. Prince Saunders, an African-American 
teacher at the African Meeting House school, per- 
suaded white businessman Abiel Smith to donate 
securities in his will worth about $5,000 to the 
Boston School Committee for the education of 
Boston's Black children. 


Adelphic Union Library 
Association 


Boston's early 19th-century Black community was 
concerned with education and cultural needs. In 
1838 the Adelphic Union Library Association was 
formed to encourage intellectual debates and off"er 
lectures. At a time when women were generally 
excluded from public lectures, the Adelphic Union 
opened its meetings to all regardless of color or 
sex. 


Cyrus Foster, 
"griot" of Boston 


Cyrus Foster was the "griot" (storyteller) of Bos- 
ton in the 19th century, known for his tales of New 
England Blacks during the Revolutionary War and 
early period of America's nationhood. A Revolu- 
tionary War veteran, Foster spent much of his time 



46 




Smith School 



CYRUS FOSIER^S 




EVENING OF JANUARY 30th, 1867. 

?z::::2::ir8:::;::::S Tickets, 25cts. 



Cyrus Foster 



47 



Cyrus Foster walking the streets and talking about his experi- 

"griot" of Boston ences. As a community oral historian, he was re- 

spected for his knowledge and ability to entertain 
the young and old. 



Benjamin and Sarah Benjamin Roberts sued the Boston School Com- 

Roberts Lawsuit mittee in 1849 for denying his daughter Sarah ad- 

mission to an all-white Boston school. His action 
rallied school integration forces in the early 1850s, 
leading to the first official school desegregation in 
Boston in 1855. At that time the Massachusetts 
legislature passed a bill closing the all-Black Smith 
School. The action came after a long boycott of 
Black-only schools led by William C. Nell. This 
represented a victory in the struggle for equal 
school access waged by Boston's Black community 
beginning in 1834. 



First Black Harvard Richard Theodore Greener, class of 1870, was the 

College Graduate first Black to graduate from Harvard College. He il 

became a professor of mental and moral philoso- 
phy at the University of South Carolina and U.S. 
Consul at Vladivostok during the Russo-Japanese 
War. i 



Pioneer Historian George Washington Williams (1849-1891) was a 

and Minister graduate of Newton Theological Seminary (1874) 

and the Pastor of Boston's Twelfth Baptist Church 
from 1874-1876. After seven years of research he 
authored A History of the Negro Race in America 
from 1619 to 1880: Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers 
and as Citizens. The work in two volumes of over 
500 pages each was an extraordinary historiogra- 
phy, the first and most important of its time. Dur- 
ing the time he was pastor of Twelfth Baptist he 
wrote The History of Twelfth Baptist Church from 
1840-1874. 



The first African-American to serve on the Boston 
School Committee was Dr. James T. Still, who was 
elected in 1875. He served for one year. Dr. Sam- 
uel E. Courtney, a South End physician, was the 
second Black person to serve on the Boston School 
Committee. In 1897 he was elected at-large to a 
three-year term and served until 1901. 



First Elected to Boston 
School Committee 



48 



Parker Bailey 



Parker Bailey (Class of 1877) and Clement Mor- 
gan (Class of 1886) were the first Black graduates 
of the Boston Latin School. Both went on to Har- 
vard College. Bailey pursued a lifetime of teach- 
ing at the M Street High School in Washington, 
D.C. Morgan graduated from Harvard Law School 
and served as the first Black elected to the Com- 
mon Council of Cambridge in 1898. 



The first Black teacher in the Boston Public First Black Teacher 

Schools is believed to have been Harriet L. Smith, 
who taught from 1890 (at the Sharp School on 
Beacon Hill) to 1917 (at the Bowdoin School on 
Beacon Hill). Her sister, Elizabeth N. Smith, 
taught from 1894-1896. Other Black teachers dur- 
ing the early 1900s were Eleanor A. Smith, 
Blanche V. Smith, Mary E. Smith, Jacqueline 
Carroll, and lola D. Yates. 



In 1895 Boston's William Monroe Trotter became Harvard Phi Beta Kappa 

the first Black to receive a Phi Beta Kappa key 
from Harvard University. 



Early Boston 
Latin Graduates 



49 



20th Century 



George W. Forbes, Librarian George W. Forbes (1864-1927) served as reference 

librarian from 1896 to 1927 in the West End 
Branch of the Boston Public Library, the city's 
busiest branch at the time. While the West End 
Beacon Hill neighborhood was a predominantly 
Black neighborhood during the late 1890s, a Jew- 
ish population predominated by 1910. On Forbes's 
death, The Jewish Daily Forward paid tribute to 
the librarian for his "knowledge and intelligence 
and good human heart [which] helped tens and 
hundreds of intelligent Jews to get on their feet." 
See p. 116 for Forbes's career in journaUsm prior 
to his Hbrary service. 



Brighton High Valedictorian In 1911 an African-American girl, F. Marion 

Reed, was valedictorian of her class at Brighton 
High School. With an overall average of 95 for 
her four years of high school study, she was in the 
top ten of academically achieving students out of 
1,291 graduates from Boston high schools in 1911. 



First Black School Principal Maria L. Baldwin of Cambridge became the first 

Black school principal in Massachusetts when she 
was appointed to head the Agassiz School in 
Cambridge in 1899. She remained in the position 
until 1922. 



Racist Song Removed In 1915 the Boston Branch NAACP won a victory 

when it persuaded the Boston School Committee 
to withdraw from the schools the book Forty Best 
Songs. The local NAACP objected to the words 
"darky," "nigger," and "massa" in the songs, and 
said in its petition to the committee that "our 
[Black] children have returned home from school 
broken-hearted that these songs are sung and that 
white children had jeered them." 



Wilhelmina Crosson, one of the first African- 
American teachers in the Boston Public Schools 
(1923-1949), started her career at the Hancock 
School in the North End. Working in the Italian- 
American community with first-generation Italian 
children, she instituted the first remedial reading 
program in Boston, opening the first center at the 
Paul Revere School in the North End. 



Pioneering Teacher 
of Reading 



50 



Maria Baldwin 




A group of Black women led by Wilhelmina Cros- Aristo Club 

son started the Aristo Club in 1924 to teach Afri- 
can-American history in the Boston schools and 
Black community and to boost educational and 
cultural opportunities for Boston's Black youth. In 
1926 the Club sponsored the first official Negro 
History Week program in Boston. Decade after 
decade up through the 1970s, the Aristo Club pro- 
vided pageants, musicals, and Black history ex- 
hibits each February to raise money for its 
scholarship program. 




Aristo Club members at 1963 Negro History Week exhibit 



51 




Black Heritage Trail 

1. African Meeting House 
2-6. Smitli Court Residences 

7. Abiel Smith School 

8. George Middleton House 

9. Robert Gould Shaw and 
54th Regiment Memorial 



10. Phillips School 

11. John J. Smith House 

12. Charles Street Meeting House 

13. Lewis Hayden House 

14. Coburn's Gaming House 



52 



In December 1935 Victor Bynoe won first place Prize Winning Orator 

(and $50) in the annual public speaking contest at 
Northeastern University. 



The Boston Branch of the NAACP founded its 
Educational Counseling Committee in 1948 to 
provide higher education information and gui- 
dance to Black young people in Boston high 
schools. Twenty years later in 1968 the Committee 
counseled over 340 students and awarded $20,000 
in direct college aid to 60 young scholars. 



The Black Heritage Trail on Beacon Hill in Boston Black Heritage Trail 

is a walking tour which explores the history of the 
city's 19th-century African-American community. 
The tour was started in 1963 as an informal walk- 
ing tour of some 10 sites by J. Marcus Mitchell, 
the first curator of the Museum of Negro History 
(now the Museum of Afro-American History). In 
1968 the tour was formally presented in a bro- 
chure designed and written by Gaunzetta and J. 
Marcus Mitchell and was called The Black Heri- 
tage Trail, starting at the Charles Street Meeting 
House (then the name of the Museum). Today the 
Trail consists of some 14 sites commencing at the 
African Meeting House: Smith Court residences, 
Abiel Smith School, George Middleton House, 
Robert Gould Shaw and 54th Massachusetts Reg- 
iment memorial, Phillips School, John J. Smith 
House, Charles Street Meeting House, Lewis Hay- 
den House, and Coburn's Gaming House. Tours 
may be arranged by calling the National Park Ser- 
vice in Boston. 



On June 4, 1963 the Education Committee of 
Boston's NAACP Branch called for a public hear- 
ing on de facto segregation in the city's public 
schools. At a June 11 hearing the committee pre- 
sented its case on behalf of Black students. 



Dr. Benjamin Quarles, born in Boston in 1904 and Dr. Benjamin Quarles, 

a graduate of English High School, became an Historian 
eminent 20th-century African- American historian. 
He is the author of The Negro in the Making of 
America, Black Abolitionists, Lincoln and the 
Negro, The Negro in the American Revolution, 



NAACP Educational 
Counseling Committee 



De Facto 
Segregation Hearing 



53 



^ „ . . ^ , and a definitive study of Frederick Douglass. He 

Dr. Beniamin Quarles, ^„ r,. 

Historian Professor Emeritus of history at Morgan 

State College in Baltimore. 



Racial Imbalance In July 1964 an advisory committee to the State 

in Schools Board of Education, chaired by Dr. Owen B. 

Kiernan, reported that segregation existed in 78 
percent of the schools in Massachusetts and that 
racial imbalance was detrimental to sound educa- 
tion in six specific ways, including "serious con- 
flict with the American creed of equal 
opportunity." 



Rev. Vernon Carter's In 1965 Rev. Vernon Carter, minister of the All 

Vigil Saints Lutheran Church in Boston's South End in 

the 1950s and 1960s, conducted a personal 114- 
day vigil/march in front of the Boston School 
Committee Headquarters to protest racial imbal- 
ance in the Boston schools. 




Rev. Vernon Carter 
54 



Ellen S. Jackson, founder of Operation Exodus 




The Black Educators Alliance of Massachusetts 
(BEAM), originally called the Massachusetts Ne- 
gro Educators Association, was founded in 1965. 
Led by the late Rollins Griffith, and including 
John D. O'Bryant, Gerry Hill, Barbara Jackson, 
and Jean McGuire, it was the first professional as- 
sociation of Black educators in Massachusetts. 
Now 25 years old, BEAM continues to work on 
educational issues and practices, sponsor work- 
shops, collaborate with community agencies, and 
raise money for Black student college scholar- 
ships. 



Black Educators Alliance 
of Massachusetts 



The Massachusetts Racial Imbalance Act, spear- Racial Imbalance Act 

headed by Boston's African-American commu- 
nity, was passed in 1965, making Massachusetts 
the first state in the nation to outlaw de facto seg- 
regation in a school district. 



Ellen Swepson Jackson was founder and executive Operation Exodus 

director of Operation Exodus, a privately initiated 
inner-city busing program that began in 1965 to 
help Black students living near substandard 
schools to attend "better" schools in other gener- 
ally all-white neighborhoods in Boston. 



In another approach to upgrading education for Metropolitan Council for 

Boston's Black students, the Metropolitan Council Educational Opportunity 

for Educational Opportunity (METCO) was 
founded in 1966, and 219 Boston students began 
attending school in seven suburban communities 
(Newton, Brookline, Wellesley, Lexington, Lin- 



55 



Metropolitan Council for 
Educational Opportunity 



coin, Arlington, and Braintree). Today there are 
3,200 METCO students from Boston's Black 
neighborhoods attending school in 34 suburban 
school districts. METCO is the only program of 
its kind in the United States. 



First Black on Board of 
Education 



Judge Richard Banks was the first African-Amer- 
ican to serve on the State Board of Education in 
Massachusetts from 1966 to 1973. 



First School Principal 



The first African- American to be appointed as a 
school principal in the Boston Public Schools was 
Gladys Wood. Appointed in 1966 to administer 
the Dearborn district (composed of three elemen- 
tary schools), she then moved into the Tileston 
district and to the Chittick School, serving for 15 
years as a Boston school administrator. 



Student Unions 



Beginning in the fall of 1968, Black student unions 
were formed in most Boston high schools to de- 
fend the rights of Black students and to push for 
educational reform in Boston. 



Ruth M. Batson 
Educational Foundation 



The Ruth M. Batson Educational Foundation was 
established in 1969 "to help improve the quality 
of education and to expand educational oppor- 
tunities for those who have been relegated to a dis- 
advantaged category because of discrimination." 
In its first 20 years the Foundation made over 160 
grants totaling nearly $130,000 to Black college 
students and Black institutions and community 
groups. 




Ruth M. Batson (center) with Boston University medical 
students 



56 



Rollins Griffith (left) in 1972 photo with John O'Bryant, first 
African-American elected to the Boston School Committee in 
the 20th century 

Rollins Griffith (1925-1978) was the first African- Rollins Griffith 

American to assume the position of Assistant Su- 
perintendent of Schools in Boston with his ap- 
pointment in 1970. 



Roxbury Community College was established in 
1973 and its new permanent campus was opened 
at New Dudley Street and Columbus Avenue to 
serve the higher education needs of Blacks, His- 
panics, and others who previously did not have 
access to the kind of post-secondary schooling that 
offered preparation for college or for the work- 
place. 



The first African-American Library Commissioner Library Commissioners 

for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was Dr. 
Adelaide Cromwell Gulliver, who was appointed 
in 1974. The second to serve on the Commission 
was Robert C. Hayden from 1978 to 1980. 



Roxbury Community 
College 



57 



Robert C. Hayden has been the leading researcher 
and writer of Boston African-American history for 
over 20 years. From 1974-1983 he wrote a weekly 
column entitled "Boston's Black History" for The 
Bay State Banner newspaper. His other works in- 
clude Faith, Culture and Leadership: A History of 
the Black Church in Boston; Boston's NAACP 
History - 1910 to 1982; The African Meeting 
House in Boston: A Celebration of History; Sing- 
ing for All People; Roland Hayes — A Biography; 
and A History of METCO: Suburban Education 
for Boston's Urban Students (co-authored with 
Ruth M. Batson). Hayden is known nationally for 
his books entitled Seven Black American Scien- 
tists, Eight Black American Inventors, and Nine 
Black American Doctors. 



Paige Academy In 1975 Angela Paige Cook with her husband Jo- 

seph Cook founded Paige Academy in the High- 
land Park section of Roxbury. The academy has 
become a nationally recognized private pre-school 
and elementary school with the arts and sciences 
as vital components of the curriculum. As a 
unique community institution specializing in early 
childhood care and education, it is one of the 
community agencies participating in Project 
AFRIC (Advancement for Families Rich in Chil- 
dren). AFRIC targets African-American families 
who will receive services in health care, nutrition, 
child care, and adult education and training un- 
der a five-year demonstration project funded by 
the federal Comprehensive Child Development 
Act. 



In 1977 John O'Bryant was elected to Boston 
School Committee, becoming the first African- 
American elected to serve on the Committee in the 
20th century. In 1989 he was elected to his seventh 
two-year term, and in 1991 he became president 
of that body for the second time. 

First African-American Dean Hubert (Hubie) Jones became the first African- 
at B.U. American dean at Boston University when he was 

appointed to head the School of Social Work in 
1977. Since 1980 he has served also as a distin- 
guished social commentator on public affairs every 
Sunday morning on the Channel 5 TV program, 
"Five on Five." 



Robert C. Hayden, 
Author/Historian 



Veteran School 
Committeeman 



58 



Appointed to the position in 1984 and reap- Library Trustee 

pointed in 1990, Berthe M. Gaines is the first Af- 
rican-American woman to serve as a trustee of the 
Boston Public Library and only the fourth woman 
to serve in the history of the Library, which was 
established in 1848. Her appointment followed a 
time of fiscal crisis for the city (1981-1984) when 
she was actively involved in SAVE OUR LI- 
BRARIES, a citywide multi-racial, multi-ethnic, 
multi-cultural group of men and women commit- 
ted to keeping neighborhood libraries open. 



In 1985 Dr. Laval S. Wilson became the first Af- First African-American 

rican-American to hold the position of Superin- Superintendent 
tendent of the Boston Public Schools in the history 
of the 354-year-old school system. He served as 
superintendent for five years, one of the longest 
tenures for an urban school superintendent. 



Dr. Franklyn Jenifer was appointed Chancellor of Chancellor of 

Higher Education in Massachusetts in 1986 by Higher Education 

Governor Michael Dukakis, becoming the first 
African-American to hold this position. In 1990 
he became president of Howard University in 
Washington, D.C. 



Eyes on the Prize — America's Civil Rights Years 
1954-1965, a television mini-series produced by 
Henry Hampton, President of Blackside, Inc., a 
film production company in Boston, was seen by 
over 20 million national viewers in 1987. This story 
of the modern civil rights movement won several 
prestigious awards, among them, "Program of the 
Year" — TV Critics Association; Best Documen- 
tary by TV Guide; Best of Festival by American 
Film and Video Festival; Broadcast Journalism's 
Most Prestigious Award; The Dupont-Columbia 
Gold Baton Award; and an Emmy from the Na- 
tional Academy of TV Arts and Sciences. In 1990, 
after two more years of archival film research and 
oral history, a second TV series. Eyes on the Prize 
II — America at the Racial Crossroads 1965-1985, 
made its debut on National Public Television. 



Eyes on the Prize 




Henry Hampton 




59 



Tutor Sam Perry at the Boston Public Library 



Muriel Snowden While Muriel Snowden (1916-1988) was still alive, 

International High School the Boston School Committee renamed Copley 

Square High School, The Muriel Snowden Inter- 
national High School, in recognition of Mrs. 
Snowden's efforts to foster the study of other cul- 
tures and foreign languages among urban youth 
and for co-founding and directing Freedom House 
in Boston (with her husband, Otto) from 1949- 
1984. 



Master Tutor For 30 years Samuel P. Perry, Jr., has spent his 

days and nights tutoring boys and girls in all sub- 
jects, preparing them for college. Almost any late 
afternoon you can see this quiet whirlwind of a 
Black man rushing back and forth among a half 
dozen Black students in Bates Hall, the huge re- 
search/reading room of the Boston Public Library. 
On Saturdays he tutors at the Dudley Branch Li- 
brary. More than 600 students have passed through 
his tutelage — seven have become doctors, five are 
engineers, and three have MB As. His students 
have gone on to Vassar, Harvard, MIT, and Dart- 
mouth. 



60 



Creative Arts 



18th Century 



Lucy Terry Prince (c. 1733-1821), sometimes re- First Poet 

f erred to as America's first Black poet, was a 

Massachusetts storyteller whose poem "The Bar's 

Fight" was written in 1746 while she was still a 

slave. 



Phillis Wheatley, a slave in Boston who gained her Phillis Wheatley 

freedom in 1772, became the first African-Ameri- 
can to publish a book of poetry, Poems on Var- 
ious Subjects, Religious and Moral. 



18th-century Artist 



Early artist Scipio Moorhead (c. 1773-?) is docu- 
mented primarily in a poem by the slave poet 
Phillis Wheatley entitled "To S.M., a Young Af- 
rican Painter, on Seeing His Works." In a penciled 
note of the 1773 edition of her Poems on Various 
Subjects, Religious and Moral, she identifies S.M. 
as "Scipio Moorhead, a Negro servant to Rev. 
John Moorhead of Boston." Rev. Moorhead's wife 
was an art teacher. It is possible that Moorhead 
engraved the unsigned portrait of Phillis Wheat- 
ley, used as a frontispiece for several of her poetry 
publications. 



19th Century 



Histrionic Club 



The Histrionic Club, the first Black drama group 
in Boston, was founded in the late 1840s. Many 
of the plays it produced were written by William 
C. Nell. 



First Published Novelist 



William Wells Brown, a novelist, playwright, his- 
torian, essayist, lecturer, physician, and abolition- 
ist, spent most of his life and pubhshed most of 
his work in Boston. He is espcially noted for Clo- 
tel: or The President's Daughter: A Narrative of 
Slave Life in the United States (1853), the first 
published novel written by an African-American. 



Renowned Artist 



In the mid- 19th century Edward M. Bannister be- 
came one of the earliest Black artists in Boston to 
win widespread praise for his work. His crayon 
portraits were noted for their excellence. He later 
moved to Providence, Rhode Island, where he be- 
came the principal founder of the Providence Art 
Club. 



19th-century Guitarist 



James Gloucester Demarest was a 19th-century 
musician who taught the guitar and violin in Bos- 
ton and also composed for these instruments. 



Musical Composer 



Henry F. Williams, who was born in Boston in 
1813, was an outstanding musician and composer 
for the violin and cornet, as well as the double 
bass, the viola, the violoncello, the baritone, the 
trombone, the tuba, and the pianoforte. He also 
arranged music for the Gilmore Band in Boston 
and was manager of the Boston Cadet Band. 



62 



Edmonia Lewis (1845-1890) was America's first 19th-century Sculptor 

Black artist recognized for her reliefs and busts of 
great anti-slavery leaders and for Forever Free, a 
composition of marble (completed in 1867) show- 
ing a man and woman overcome with emotion on 
hearing news of their emancipation from slavery. 
Lewis began her art career in Boston between 1862 
and 1865 where she studied under Edmund Brack- 
ett and did a bust of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, 
the Commander of the first Black regiment orga- 
nized in Massachusetts during the Civil War. 
Working from her studio at 89 Tremont Street, she 
created sculptures of Boston military heroes and 
abolitionists which were sold at the Soldier's Re- 
lief Fair to raise monies for the Civil War veterans' 
relief fund. 



The Progressive Musical Union, an organization Progressive Musical Union 
of Black musicians, sponsored its first public con- 
cert on March 9, 1875. 

Rachel M. Washington was the first African- 
American to graduate from the New England 
Conservatory of Music in the year 1876. She 
served as organist and choir director at Twelfth 
Baptist Church in the latter half of the 19th cen- 
tury and was a leading music teacher in Boston's 
Black community. 

In 1885 James Monroe Trotter published a widely James Monroe Trotter 

acclaimed book, Music and Some Highly Musical 
People, a tribute to some 200 Black groups and 
individuals for their musical achievement in Bos- 
ton and the United States during the 1800s. 



20th Century 



Pauline Hopkins, a Black high school student in Protest Writer 

Boston, won the first prize of "ten dollars in gold," 
6ffered by the Congregational Publishing Society 
of Boston in 1895 for her essay on the "Evils of 
Intemperance and Their Remedies." She went on 
to become a writer for the Colored American 
Magazine. In the early 1900s her articles and nov- 
els were important protest literature, in which she 
addressed problems and issues on race relations 
"thought to be unspeakable" and not touched by 
other journals. 



First Graduate, 
New England 
Conservatory of Music 



63 



Opera Producer 



Theodore Drury, who had earlier produced operas 
with Black casts in New York City, organized and 
trained a Black company in Boston in the early 
years of the 20th century. In 1907 "Aida" and a 
scene from "Carmen" were produced, and "Faust" 
and "Cavalleria Rusticana" in the following year. 



Literary Giant 



William Stanley Braithwaite (1878-1962) of Bos- 
ton was a significant force in the development of 
creative American literature from 1906 to 1936. He 
was a poet, journalist, essayist, and pioneering 
anthologist of American poetry, writing some 31 
books of poetry and prose. In 1918 he received 
the coveted Spingarn Medal from the NAACP for 
his many achievements. 



Boston Negro Arts Club 



The Boston Negro Arts Club was formed in 1907 
and its first exhibition was held the same year. 



Plea for Negro Soldiers 



Charles Frederick White, who studied at Boston 
Latin School, published Plea for the Negro Sol- 
diers, and One Hundred Other Poems in 1908. 




Dorothy West signing copies of The Living Is Easy 



64 



Meta Warwick Fuller, who lived in Framingham, Internationally Recognized 
Massachusetts, from 1909 until her death in 1968, Sculptor 
was widely acclaimed for her sculpture. Her 
2 sculptures of human figures were exhibited both 
locally and nationally. 



Dorothy West, born in 1910 and raised in Boston, 20th-century Novelist 

became a leading novelist, short-story writer, edi- 
tor, and columnist. Her novel The Living Is Easy 
(about growing up Black in Boston) was published 
in 1948; currently she writes a column for the 
Vineyard Gazette on Martha's Vineyard Island. 



Roland Hayes, who gained national and interna- Roland Hayes, 

tional fame as a classical concert artist, launched Vocal Artist 

his career in Boston's Symphony Hall in 1917. He 
lived, studied, and worked in Boston and Brook- 
Hne, Massachusetts, from 1912 until his death in 
1977. In 1921 the noted tenor gave a command 
performance before the King and Queen of Eng- 
land at Buckingham Palace. He pioneered in 
bringing African-American religious folk-songs 
(the spirituals) to the American and world concert 
stage. 




Roland Hayes accompanied by Reginald Boardman 

65 




Allan Rohan Crite 



Ancrum School of Music 



The Ancrum School of Music operated for over 
three decades in the early 1900s at 74 W. Rutland 
Square. It was established and directed by Estelle 
A. Forster, an early Black graduate of the New 
England Conservatory of Music. She advertised 
"Courses in Piano, Organ, Viola, Voice, Flute, 
Brass and Wind Instruments, Harmony, Solfeg- 
gio, Theory and all musical subjects. Excellent 
Facility. Two Dormitories and Cafeteria. " 



Theater Pioneer 



Ralf Coleman, actor, writer, director, manager, 
and producer of numerous stage hits, was a major 
Black theater pioneer in New England between the 
two world wars. He held many important theater 
posts, including director of the Negro Federal 
Theatre of Massachusetts from 1934 to 1939 and 
Executive Director of The Negro Repertory Thea- 
tre of Boston. 



66 



The Academy of Musical Arts, founded by Anna 
Bobbitt Gardner, has been providing music les- 
sons in Boston for over 65 years. The Academy 
(originally called Pianoforte Studio) was started in 
i the basement of her home on Claremont Park. 
When the school moved to its present site on Co- 
t lumbus Avenue, it also had satellite schools of 
1 music in Cambridge, West Medford, and West 
Newton. 


Academy of Musical Arts 


In February 1927 the Boston Stage Society, an af- 
filiate of the Ford Hall Forum, presented the first 
Negro play to gain a wide audience in Boston, 
"The Rider of Dreams," by Ridley Torrence. 


"Rider of Dreams" 


Stanley E. Brown (1902-1977) was a nationally 
known dancer and dance instructor in Boston 
from 1929 to 1977. Founder of the Stanley Brown 
Dance Studio, he trained and coached hundreds 
i of professionals. "Sugar Ray" Robinson took tap 
lessons from Brown as did Cab Calloway, Diana 
Ross, and Lola Falana. In addition to tap dance, 
he taught ballet, marches, and ballroom dancing. 
"As a dancer, he was one of the last of our ora- 
cles. When dancers wanted to know something, 
they went to Stanley before they went to a book," 
said singer Mae Arnette in 1977. 


Nationally Known Dancer 


For over 60 years Rebecca Ellastine Lee Broadnax 
(1893-1987) was a renowned voice and piano 
teacher in greater Boston. For teenagers she 
founded the Cantemus Club in 1934, a group of 
24 students who presented concerts and recitals in 
Boston and throughout New England until 1952. 
She organized the L'Africaine Singers, a choral 
ensemble of aduh professionals. She directed jun- 
ior senior and childrpn'"; rhnir*; at varTnii<s 
churches and community agencies. 


Renowned Voice and 
Piano Teacher 


Allan Rohan Crite (1910- ) is Boston's most dis- 
tinguished Black artist and art historian, noted for 
an eclectic range of subjects — from religious 
themes to neighborhood scenes. His religious art- 
work can be seen in the Church of St. Augustine 
and St. Martin on Lenox Street in lower Roxbury. 
His views of Blacks in an urban setting, Crite says, 
"present [people] in an ordinary light, persons en- 


Allan Rohan Crite 

67 



A •• 1- ^ joying the usual pleasures of life with its mixtures 

Allan Rohan Crite /, , , . „ ^ . , , , 

of both sorrows and joys. Crite s works have been 

exhibited throughout the United States and Eu- 
rope and are in the permanent collections of the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, The Boston Public 
Library, and Boston Athenaeum. His illustrated 
books, including The Christmas Message in Pic- 
tures and Some of the Colored Peoples of God, 
are collector's items. 



Legendary Jazz Pianist Sabby Lewis has become a legendary jazz pianist 

and band leader in Boston. He organized his first 
band in Boston in 1936. In 1942 his musical talent 
was recognized when he was chosen to perform a 
Sunday-night NBC radio broadcast. In the 1950s 
and 1960s he played on Broadway in New York 
City and at leading clubs in New York and Boston 

— in Boston at the Savoy (where he first intro- 
duced jazz for listening in 1940), the Hi-Hat, and 
at Wally's Paradise. For decades Sabby Lewis's 
bands played for ballroom dances all over New 
England. At age 75 Mr. Lewis is still at the piano 

— more recently at the Westin Hotel and in The 
Lounge at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Boston. 




Sabby Lewis 

68 




James Henderson (far right) with theater group 



Born in Roxbury in 1900, Mildred Davenport be- Trailblazing Dancer 

came a trailblazing dancer and renowned dance 
instructor. Her first career was in show business. 
In 1938 she danced her interpretation of the Af- 
rican-American spirituals with the Boston Pops. 
She appeared on Broadway with such reviews as 
"Blackbirds" and "Flying Colors" and danced with 
white performers such as Imogene Coca and Clif- 
ton Webb. For more than five years she toured in 
the "Chocolate Revue" in New York, Baltimore, 
and Washington, D.C. With her dancing career 
behind her, she served as an officer in the Wom- 
en's Army Corps (WAC) during World War II. 
From 1947 to 1968 she worked for the Massachu- 
setts Commission Against Discrimination. 



James Henderson (1894-1979) was a pioneering Pioneering Playwright 

actor and developer of the Black theater in Boston 
during the first half of the 20th century. As a play- 
wright, he toured New England with his Black 
theater groups. 



69 



For more than 40 years Vernon F. Blackman was 
a significant force in the theater. Beginning his 
stage career with the Little Theater Players, he 
founded the People's Theater Company of Cam- 
bridge and the Theater Company of Boston. From 
the 1950s until his death in 1990, Blackman was 
an instructor and mentor to Blacks in the theater. 
He appeared in the Theater Company of Boston's 
1964 production of "In the Jungle of the Cities" 
and in "Something about the Blues," a 1979 TV 
drama shown nationally on PBS. He became di- 
rector of drama at the Elma Lewis School of Fine 
Arts in 1968, and for the next 21 Christmas sea- 
sons he directed the School's production of "Black 
Nativity." 



Tap King Boston born and raised, Jimmy Slyde has gained 

national and international fame as a tap dancer in 
films and concerts. Studying dance with Stanley 
Brown and Mildred Davenport in Boston, he 
started his early career in the city's vaudeville, 
theaters, and nightclubs — the RKO, the Old 
Howard, and the Frolic in Revere. His dance ca- 
reer spans more than 40 years and has included 
performances with Judy Garland in the film, "A 
Star is Born"; in the Berlin Jazz Festival in 1966; 
and with Gregory Hines and the late Sammy 
Davis, Jr., in "Tap." During the past ten years he 
has been teaching tap dancing in Europe. 



Elma Lewis School The Elma Lewis School was established in 1950 to 

give expert training in the arts to children, youth, 
and adults. Its students have performed on Broad- 
way and in symphony orchestras. During its 40 
years of existence, the School has been producing 
professional artists and changing the quality of life 
for its community and students. Under the artistic 
direction of Elma Lewis, today it continues as the 
teaching arm of the National Center of African- 
American artists. The Center was founded in 1978 
in Boston to compile, interpret, and disseminate 
the culture of African-American people as defined 
by their art product. It has become an institution 
for understanding the culture and visual arts her- 
itage of Africans and people of African descent 
throughout the world. 



Actor, Playwright, 
Producer and 
Drama Teacher 



70 





Roy Haynes, drummer 



First with Boston Symphony 



The first African-American to play with the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestra was bass player Ortiz 
Walton in the late 1950s. 



Internationally Known 
Drummer 



Roy Haynes, a Roxbury native, is a nationally 
known drummer and has played a significant role 
in the changing sound of jazz in a career that en- 
compasses several eras from the bebop of Charlie 
Parker and Thelonius Monk to Chick Corea's 
avant-fusion. 



Boston Afro-American 
Artists, Inc. 



The Boston Afro-American Artists, Inc. (BAAA) 
— (formerly The Boston Negro Artists Associa- 
tion) — was organized in 1963 by J. Marcus 
Mitchell and Calvin Burnett to stimulate the de- 
velopment of and appreciation for the visual arts 
within the Black community. Incorporated in 1966, 
the BAAA developed the first viable association 
for both amateur and professional artists in the 
Boston area. Its "Sunday in the Park" show has 
become a popular community event each year 
providing Black artists a marketplace in which to 
exhibit and sell their work. 



72 



J 



I Art historian Edmund B. Gaither, curator and di- Art Historian 

rector of the Museum of the National Center of 
Afro-American Artists, has been a leading 
spokesman for the Black artist in Boston for over 
25 years. He is internationally known as an advo- 

Jcate of African-American visual artists and as a 
contributor to the understanding and appreciation 
^1 of the global heritage of Black people. A consul- 
I tant to the Museum of Fine Arts, he is also co- 
/' founder of the African-American Museums As- 
i ; sociation. 



"Black Nativity," a folk-song rendering of the "Black Nativity" 

Christian story based on Langston Hughes's gos- 
pel song-play about the birth of Christ, has be- 
come an annual tradition in Boston since 1969. 
First presented in the Elma Lewis School of Fine 

1 Arts, it has attracted a wider audience in its per- 
formances on stage at Northeastern University and 

I most recently at the Opera House in Boston. 
Members of an all-Black professional cast under 
the musical direction of John Andrew Ross wed 
their talents with the voices of children as young 
as five, appearing on stage for the first time. 



Ann Hobson Pilot is the principal harpist in the Principal Harpist in BSO 

Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO). As the only 
African- American in the BSO for over 20 years, 
she started as a second harpist in 1969, moved to 
associate harpist and then to principal harpist in 
1980. Nationally she is the only principal African- 
American musician of a major symphony orches- 
tra. 



The Kuumba Singers of Harvard and Radcliffe The Kuumba Singers 

have become a prominent fixture in the local mus- 
ical world during the past 20 years. Established in 
1970 to give Black students at the Ivy League 
schools an opportunity to celebrate their culture, 
the Kuumba Singers off"er a unique form of Afri- 
can-American spirituals, jazz, master choral 
works, poetry, and African chants. Robert Win- 
frey, musical director of the group since 1973, says 
he takes pride in the Singers for their music and, 
beyond that, for their skill as organizers who ne- 
gotiate their own engagement contracts and plan 
nationwide tours. 



73 




T. J. Anderson, composer 



T. J. Anderson, 
Composer 



T. J. Anderson, who served as Chairman of the 

Department of Music and is currently the Austin 
Fletcher Professor of Music at Tufts University, is 
a leading 20th-century composer. He is recognized 
for his orchestration of Scott Joplin's opera, Tree- 
monisha, which premiered in Atlanta in 1972. He 
has ser\ed on the Massachusetts Council on the 
Arts and Humanities. 



Superstar Singer 



Dorchester's own Donna Summer revolutionized 
the music industry's disco craze with the release 
of her "mega-hit," "Love to Love You, Baby," in 
1977. 



Master Artists 
in Residency 



The African-American Master Artists in Resi- 
dency Program (AAMARP) at Northeastern Uni- 
versity was established in 1977 by renowned artist 
and professor Dana Chandler. AAMARP has 
been dedicated to providing its constituencies with 
the best aesthetic presentations from the widest 
spectrum of artists available. Its studios and gal- 
leries have provided spaces for dozens of African, 
Asian, Hispanic, European, and Native American 
artists and exhibits. 



74 



Donna Summer 




Among the leading 20th-century Black artists Major 20th-century Artists 

whose works have educated and contributed to the 
life of all Bostonians are Ellen Banks, John Bar- 
bour, Roger Beatty, Calvin Burnett, Dana Chan- 
dler, Robin Chandler, Allan Rohan Crite, Milton 
Derr, Paul Goodnight, James Guilford, Barbara 
Holt, Arnold Hurley, Larry Johnson, Lois Mailou 
Jones, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Harriet Ken- 
nedy, J. Marcus Mitchell, James Reed, Gary 
Rickson, Rudy Robinson, Henry Washington, 
John Wilson, and Richard Yarde. 



75 



I 



Business/Industry 



18th Century 



Prosperous Hat Maker 



Stephen Jackson was a prosperous hat maker in 
Boston in the 1730s, when "a man would as soon jj 
go without his head as go without his hat." 

f 



Early Leader 
in Shipping and 
Civil Rights 



Paul Cuffe of the Westport-New Bedford area be- 
came a prosperous merchant, mariner, ship- 
builder and owner between 1780 and 1810. He 
pioneered the opening up of trade with West Af- 
rican countries, using his own ships. He was also 
the nation's first Black millionaire who used his 
considerable resources to work on behalf of his 
people. 



19th Century 



First Black 
Printing Business 



In 1838 Benjamin Roberts estabhshed Boston's 
first Black-owned and operated printing business. 



Coburn's Gaming House 



John P. Coburn (1811-1873), a prosperous cloth- 
ing dealer and property owner, hired the famous 
Boston architect Asher Benjamin to design a home 
which he eventually used as a gaming house. Built 
in 1843 and still standing at the corner of Phillips 
and Irving Streets on Beacon Hill, Coburn's Gam- 
ing House was described as a "private place" that 
was "the resort of the upper ten who had acquired 
a taste for gambling." Coburn left an estate of 
$18,500 in real estate and $2,000 in cash. 



Black Businesses in 1846 



Nearly 200 of Boston's 800 black residents oper- 
ated businesses in 1846. 



76 




I,. Eliza Ann Gardner conducted a prosperous dress- Prosperous Dressmaker 

making business in Boston before the Civil War 

and did the delicate needlework for the first ban- 
jlj ner made for the Plymouth Rock Chapter of Odd 

Fellows. 



lat Peyton Stewart, who was in the clothes cleaning Gymnasium Owner 

ed business in the mid-1 800s, opened a gymnasium 
of with mostly white patronage on the corner of 

Boylston and Washington Streets. Assisted by his 

daughter in giving athletic instructions, he oper- 

ated this prosperous business until his death in 

1870. 



77 



Civil War Caterer 
and Senator 



For more than 25 years Joshua B. Smith (1813- 
1879) operated a thriving catering business for pri- 
vate individuals and abolitionist organizations as 
well as for the troops during the Civil War. He 
represented Cambridge as a senator in the state 
legislature during 1873 and 1874. 



Early Entrepreneur 



By 1885 J. H. Lewis, one of the best known cloth- 
iers of the period, developed a thriving business 
making fashionable "bell trousers" in a large shop 
on Washington Street in Boston's downtown busi- 
ness district. 



Successful Tailor Shop 



Advertising that clothing could be "cleaned, dyed, 
pressed and repaired," Andrew Bush owned a suc- 
cessful merchant tailor shop in New Bedford, 
Massachusetts, in the late 1800s. 



Labor Unions 



Labor unions for Blacks in Boston came into ex- 
istence in the late 1800s with the establishment of 
the Boston Colored Waiters' Alliance or Local 183 
of the American Federation of Labor. Members 
were so-called public waiters, not regularly em- 
ployed, but hired for catering and temporary hotel 
and restaurant jobs. They held their charter from 
the white waiters' alliance, but they withdrew to 
form a semi-independent group. 




Laborers in Boston in late 19th century 



78 



20th Century 



African-American businessman Henry C. Turner Stable/Livery Business 

(1852-1919) owned a boarding stable and garage 
(1890-1919) and operated a large livery business 
in Boston, servicing a mostly white clientele. Con- 
structed in 1900, his stable and garage, always 
ready with horses, buggies, and carriages for hire, 
still stands today, housing the College of Engi- 
neering at Boston University on Cummington 
Street. 



Of the 197 Boston businesses operated by Blacks Black Businesses in 1900 

in 1900, 70 were in wholesale and retail trade, 107 
were in personal service, and 20 were in other lines 
(for example, printing, newspaper publishing, ci- 
gar manufacturing, banking, and real estate 
rental). Those with personal services included tai- 
lors, undertakers, caterers, livery services and sta- 
bles, boarding and lodging keepers, restaurant 
owners, barbershops, laundries and bootblack 
stands. 



The National Negro Business League was founded 
in Boston in 1900 by Booker T. Washington "to 
bring the colored people who are engaged in busi- 
ness together for consultation, and to secure infor- 
mation and inspiration from each other." More 
than 400 business people from 34 states attended 
the convention in Boston. 



The largest wig manufacturer in Boston in the Wig Manufacturer 

early 1900s was Gilbert C. Harris. By 1910 his 
mail-order business was the largest of its kind in 
New England, supplying theatrical stock compa- 
nies throughout the country. 



Pavid E. Crawford opened Eureka Co-Operative Eureka Co-Operative Bank 

"feank in Boston in 1910, "the only bank in the 

East owned and operated by 'Colored People.' " 

He was appointed a master in the Chancery by the 

Governor of Massachusetts in 1915, and in 1916 

the citizens of Boston elected him as a delegate to 

the National Republican Convention in Chicago. 

By 1920 his holdings of apartments, stores, and 

commercial properties were valued at $150,000. 



National Negro Business 
League 



79 



Interior view of Eureka Cooperative Bank 



Goode Trust Company The Goode Trust Company, or Jesse Goode As- 

sociates, was a group of some 20 Boston Blacks, 
most of them waiters, who pooled their weekly 
savings to invest in real estate in the first decade 
of this century. Its president was Jesse Goode, 
head of the large retail and wholesale grocery firm 
of Goode, Dunson & Henry. In 1910 the group's 
holdings were assessed at $73,000 in value. 



Black-Owned Hotels There were three Black-owned and operated hotels 

in Boston in 1915: the Pitts, Carlton, and Mel- 
bourne. 



In the early 20th century Theodore Raymond built 
up the largest real estate business in the city of 
Cambridge, with property holdings estimated at 
about $200,000. 



Famous Restaurants Small lunchrooms and restaurants were plentiful 

during the early 1900s in Boston's Black neighbor- 
hoods. One was the Southern Dining Room oper- 
ated by Thomas E. Lucas, who advertised his 
place as "cool, clean and commodious. . . . Good 
food and prompt attentive service have made this 



Largest Real Estate 
Business 



80 



a most desirable place for discriminating people." 
From the 1920s to the 1960s, Slade's Restaurant 
was famous for its "soul food," especially its bar- 
becued chicken cooked in a rotisserie in a front 
window in full view of passersby at its 958 Tre- 
mont Street location. This once famous landmark 
was established by Renner Slade, who also owned 
and operated his own chicken farm. Another fa- 
mous restaurant/night club of the past was Es- 
telle's, just a few doors down from Slade's at 
Tremont Street. 



Famous Restaurants 




Southern Dining Room 



NEGROES ARE REALLY WAKING UP!! 
THINKING Negroes around Roxbury are now 
spending their money only in stores owned and 
operated by Negroes and in other stores 
where they find colored help 

Very few Negroes are now spending their hard-earned 
dollars in places where they haven't a chance 
to secure jobs for -themselves 
or their children 



Front page ad in Boston Chronicle, 1932 



81 



Henry Owens 



South End Electric In 1923 Leon G. Lomax founded the South End 

Company Electric Company in Roxbury, a firm which stayed ; 

in business until the early 1970s. Lomax also or- 
ganized and became president of the Greater Bos- [, 
ton Negro Business and Trade Association in 1938. j 



Henry Owens Movers Henry Owens Movers was founded in 1927 in j 

Cambridge, becoming one of the major moving 
and rigging companies in New England still in 
business today. Henry Owens, Sr., founded his 
business with a horse and buggy, peddling ice to 
his neighbors and carting baggage to and from 
Boston's piers for the large Italian immigrant pop- 
ulation in his Cambridge neighborhood. 



From 1927 to 1942 a branch of the Poro School 
and Beauty Shoppe on Massachusetts Avenue, es- 
tablished and managed by E. Alice Taylor, was ; 
one of the Black-owned firms in New England. : 
The school had an annual enrollment of 150 stu- | 
dents, and the Beauty Shoppe had a staff of 15 \ 
professional beauticians. Mrs. Taylor founded The : 
Professional Hairdressers Association of Massa- • 
chusetts and became its first president. 



Poro School and Beauty 
Shoppe 



82 



The J. B. Johnson Funeral Home, estabhshed in Oldest Funeral Homes 

1932, and the Davis Funeral Home, established in 
1935 — both still in business — are two of the 
oldest continuously performing establishments 
providing services to Black families in Boston. 



James Guilford, who owned and operated a bar- Leader in 

bering business in lower Roxbury from 1934 to Barber Business 

1973 (Dunbar Barbers until 1945 and Jimmy 

Guilford's Men's Hair Salon until 1973), was state 

president of the Associated Master Barbers of 

Massachusetts, which included both white and 

Black barbers. 



For 50 years, from 1938-1988, Clarence Noel 
Jackson (1911-1988), Reg. Ph., owned and oper- 
ated the Douglass Square Pharmacy in lower Rox- 
bury. "Dr. Jackson," as he was called, a graduate 
of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy in 
1937, provided a community institution for health 
care throughout difficult periods of change in the 
lower Roxbury neighborhood. 



"Doctor Jackson," 
Pharmacist 




James Guilford, barber; customer Sugar Ray Robinson, 
World Middleweight Champion, 1964 

83 



Calvin M. Grimes, Jr., and 
Calvin M. Grimes, Sr. 




Grimes Oil Company Calvin M. Grimes, Sr., founded Grimes Oil Com- ) 

pany in Boston in 1940. Now operated by Calvin 
M. Grimes, Jr., this 50-year-old business started 
with one ice delivery truck, once serviced more \ 
than 3,000 residential customers, and now delivers ■ 
gasoline, fuel oil, diesel fuel, and residual oil to 
commercial customers only. Grimes Oil is the na- i 
tion's 25th largest minority-owned business. 



Master Brick Masons When it comes to using bricks and mortar for the 

development and beautification of the community, 
the brothers Percy and John Gray have contrib- 
uted their skills as master brick masons to the 
buildings of Roxbury and the city for more than 
50 years. 



84 



I In the 1940s and 1950s, at the corner of Massa- Hi-Hat Club 

chusetts and Columbus Avenues, stood a land- 
mark in the history of jazz, the Hi-Hat Club. (The 
new Harriet Tubman House now occupies the 
j site.) Originally it was a supper club patronized by 
\\ whites listening to "white" music, but the music 
j became "Black" and Black clientele followed. Out- 
I side a doorman with top hat, cape, and cane, 
greeted customers. Situated on two levels, the 
downstairs served full barbecue dinners, while the 
upstairs lounge oflFered cool drinks and hot jazz. 
Most of the leaders of Black Boston patronized 
the Hi-Hat. Some of the world's greatest jazz mu- 
sicians — Jimmy Rogers, Slam Stewart, the Oscar 
Peterson Trio, Errol Garner - entertained at the 
Hi-Hat. 



The historic Pioneer Club, a semi-private club Pioneer Club 

owned by Shag and Bal Taylor and a landmark in 
the history of jazz, was a funky after-hours night 
spot located in a brick, three-story row house at 
the end of a short alley off Tremont Street (where 
the new Douglass Plaza now stands). Socially and 
culturally, it was a retreat where people who val- 
ued privacy could relax. Many would dine at Es- 
telle's or Slade's across the street, then stroll over 
to the Pioneer to take in an evening of jazz. The 
Club began to fill with patrons around 11 p.m., 
and often musicians played through the night un- 
til sunrise. Jazz greats playing in Boston — like 
Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Sonny Stitt, and 
Errol Garner — would drop in after hours to per- 
form. The Pioneer Club was also a place where 
informal community politics were discussed, and 
Black candidates and elected officials met to plan 
political strategy with Bal and Shag Taylor. 



In the Christmas season of 1945, shoppers at First Downtown Clerks 

Gilchrist's brought their gifts for wrapping to a 
•young female employee who stood out among the 
holiday help. Cynthia Belgrave was the first Black 
clerk ever hired in a downtown department store 
in Boston. This hiring came from pressure exer- 
cised by Boston's Urban League "to get into 
downtown somebody besides elevator operators at 
Filene's." After Christmas eight more Black 
women, along with Belgrave, were hired as retail 
clerks at Gilchrist's. 



85 



John B. Cruz Construction The John B. Cruz Construction Co., estabHshed 
Company in Boston in 1945, has expanded into one of the 

largest minority-owned construction firms in the 
U.S. This family-owned and operated business has 
constructed both housing and commercial com- 
plexes to revitalize Boston's Black neighborhoods. 



Wally's Paradise Since 1947, Wally's, originally called Wally's Par- 

adise and still located on Massachusetts Avenue in 
the South End, has been a landmark jazz club. 
This neighborhood jazz bar, owned by Joseph 
Walcott, who is now 95 years old, has played host 
to nationally known musicians like Errol Garner, 
Oscar Peterson, Charlie Parker, and Coleman 
Hawkins. Local performers, such as drummer 
Alan Dawson and saxophonists Greg Osby and 
Andy McGhee, all got their start at Wally's where 
up-and-coming musicians can also ply their mus- 
ical trade. The Club's Sunday afternoon jazz ses- 
sion is still one of its oldest and richest traditions. 



Printing Business Pioneer EstabHshed in 1952, Lester Benn's printing busi- 

ness has served the needs of the Black community 
for nearly 40 years. Enamored of the art of the 
printing trade, Lester Benn struggled throughout 
the 1940s to become an independent printer, ac- 
quiring the "bits and pieces" of used machinery 
and doing "small jobs" to print eventually under 
the "Benn Banner." 




Bob "The Chef" Morgan 



Bob the Chef's Restaurant has been a popular Bob the Chef's Restaurant 
landmark soul food eating place in Boston for 30 
years. Established by Bob "the Chef" Morgan on 
Columbus Avenue where it stands today, this fa- 
mous eating place is known for its ham hocks, 
fried chicken, barbecued spareribs, cornbread, and 
sweet potato pie. "My first concession in Boston 
was in a barroom (The Big M) on Massachusetts 
Avenue — there were only four stools, but the 
word spread and business grew; now we can seat 
150 people at a time," said Morgan in the mid- 
1980s. Bob the Chef, who died in 1987, will al- 
ways be remembered standing by his cash register 
as he took customers' money with a smile, saying, 
"God bless you ... so nice to see you and come 
again." 



A leading African-American businesswoman in 
Boston for more than 20 years, Estella V. Crosby 
owned and operated a dry goods store on Tremont 
Street. She chaired the annual convention of the 
National Business League in Boston in 1955, or- 
ganized the Housewives League, and was active in 
the League of Women Voters. 



Leading Businesswoman 



87 



Negro Business and A vital force in Boston's business development for 

Professional Women's Clubs more than 30 years, the Boston Association of Ne- 
gro Business and Professional Women's Clubs was 
organized in 1957 "to create and develop oppor- 
tunities for African-American women in business 
and the professions and to protect their interests." 



Stull and Lee, Inc. The architectural and planning firm of Stull and 

Lee, Inc., estabUshed by Donald L. Stull in 1966, 
has made a profound impact on the physical en- 
vironment and landscape of Boston. With co- 
partner David Lee and a staff of 40 design profes- 
sionals — architects, planners, and urban design- 
ers — Stull and Lee grew from residential design 
work to major building projects in educational, 
health care, correctional facilities, office and man- 
ufacturing facilities, transit station design, and a 
variety of urban design and planning commis- 
sions. Among the firm's designs are: Roxbury 
Community College, The Harriet Tubman Center, 
the town-square concept for the South Station 
concourse, and the new Ruggles Street (MBTA) 
station. The firm's Southwest Corridor Urban De- 
sign (a linear park running some 4.7 miles through 
the city) represents the first time in Boston that an 
architectural rather than an engineering firm has 
developed an outdoor landscape aesthetic. 




Donald Stull (left) and David Lee (right) 



88 





Archie Williams (seated center) 




In 1967 the United Community Construction First Construction Workers' 
Workers, led by Leo Fletcher, became the first Union 
Black construction workers' union in Boston. 



Now more than 20 years old. Freedom Electronics Freedom Electronics and 

and Engineering was founded by lawyer and busi- Engineering 
nessman Archie Williams during the height of the 
civil rights movement in Boston in the 1960s. The 
firm presently supplies products and services for 
giant high-tech industries such as Digital Equip- 
ment Corporation, Honeywell Information Sys- 
tems, New England Telephone, and the Gillette 
Company. 



In June 1968 Unity Bank, the first full-service Unity Bank 

Black bank in Boston, opened its doors for busi- 
ness. Approximately 70 percent of the $1.2 mil- 
lion in bank assets was raised by subscription in 
the Black community. 



89 



Black Corporate Presidents of New England, Inc., 
was formed and incorporated in 1973 by a group 
of Black manufacturers concerned about the exist- 
ing barriers which prevented their businesses from 
full access to public and private sector contract 
opportunities. Today BCPNE represents a re- 
gional constituency and the interest of some 5,000 
Black-owned manufacturing and service industries 
in the New England region. 



Boston Bank of Commerce Incorporated on June 30, 1982, with Juan M. Co- 
field as its leading founder and president from 
1982-83, Boston Bank of Commerce is the only 
fully insured Black-owned and operated bank in 
Boston and New England. A successor to Unity 
Bank and Trust, Boston's first Black-owned Bank, 
the Boston Bank of Commerce is unique in its 
outreach and service to religious, academic, social 
service, health and human service agencies and or- 
ganizations. Under the leadership of Ronald A. 
Homer, who became president and chief executive 
officer in June 1983, a winning investment strat- 
egy has been showing an annual growth rate of 30 
percent. Commenting on the $70 million bank 
with its record of consistent profitability, growth, 
and service. Homer anticipates "that our most sig- 
nificant contribution to community reinvestment 
... is destined to become a national model for 
neighborhood revitalization and minority business 
opportunity." The bank has been named "Bank of 
the Year" by Black Enterprise magazine and "One 
of New England's Ten Best" by the Boston Her- 
ald. 



Top Black Businesses In Black Enterprise magazine's listings of the top 

100 Black companies and the 100 largest Black 
auto dealers in the United States during the late 
1980s, a number of Boston area-based businesses 
made the fists: B.M.L. Associates (telecommuni- 
cations); Grimes Oil Company (petroleum prod- 
ucts distribution); HII Corporation (construction 
and real estate development); InPut OutPut Com- 
puter Services (computer software and systems in- 
tegration); J.J.S. Services, Inc. (janitorial services 
and supplies); Scott and Duncan Co. (architec- 
tural woodworking); Apex Construction (office 
computer furniture and supplies distribution); 



Black Corporate 
Presidents 



90 



and Barron Chevrolet (Danvers), Walton Ford- 
Volkswagen (Medford), and Westfield Ford (all in 
auto sales). 



Top Black Businesses 



Real estate entrepreneur Richard Taylor was ap- Secretary of Transportation 
pointed in 1988 to the Board of Directors of the 
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston; and in 1990 he 
became Deputy Chairman, both first appoint- 
ments for an African-American in Boston. The 
Federal Reserve is "the banker's bank," controlling 
the money supply of the country. In 1991 Taylor 
was appointed Secretary of Transportation by 
Governor William Weld. 



91 



Government/Politics 



18th Century 



Voting Rights for Blacks Prominent businessman Paul Cuffe used his influ- 

ence to petition the Massachusetts legislature for 
voting rights for Blacks and American Indians, 
which were later granted through court action in 
1783. 



19th Century 



Ward 9 Politicians 



From Boston's "old" Ward 9 in the Beacon Hill 
area, Boston's Black citizens were able to elect 20 
Black persons to public office — to the city coun- 
cil, the state legislature, and school committee — 
during the second half of the 19th century. 



First Federal Position 



William C. Nell (1816-1874) was appointed a 
postal clerk in the U.S. Postal System in 1860, be- 
coming the first African-American to hold a fed- 
eral civilian job in the city. 




William Nell 

92 




John J. Smith 



John J. Smith, whose barber shop was an aboH- 
tionist rendezvous prior to the Civil War, was 
elected to the state House of Representatives in 
1868 and 1869, and then re-elected in 1872. He 
was also the first Black to serve on the Boston 
Common Council in 1878. 



Lewis Hayden, a leading 19th-century Black abo- 
litionist who harbored over two-thirds of Boston's 
fugitive slaves in his Beacon Hill house prior to 
the Civil War, was elected to the Massachusetts 
General Court in 1873. 



Four African-Americans served on the Cambridge Early Cambridge City 

City Council in the 1800s: J. Milton Clark, 1873; Councilors 
William Stevenson, 1882-83; W. C. Lane, 1883-84; 
Louis E. Baldwin, 1891-95. 



First on Boston 
Common Council 



Underground Railroad 
Leader 



93 



i 



Early Boston City Councilors 



The 19th-century African-American members of 
the Boston City Council were: 

George L. Ruffin, 1876-77 

James W. Pope, 1881 

William O. Armstrong, 1885-86 

Andrew B. Leattimore, 1887-88 

Charles E. Harris, 1889-90 

Nelson Gaskins, 1891 

Walden Banks, 1892-93 

Stanley Ruffin, 1894-95 

J. Henderson Allston, 1894-95 - 

Charles H. Hall, 1895. 



Early State Representatives 



The 19th-century African-American state repre- 
sentatives were: 

Edwin G. Walker, 1866 
Charles L. Mitchell, 1866 
John J. Smith, 1868, 1869, 1872 
George L. Ruffin, 1870, 1871 
Joshua B. Smith, 1873, 1874 
George W Lowther, 1878, 1879 
Julius C. Chappelle, 1883-86 
William O. Armstrong, 1887, 1888 
Andrew B. Leattimore, 1889, 1890 
Charles E. Harris, 1892 
Robert T. Teamoh, 1894 
William L. Reed, 1896, 1897 



19th-century Statesman 



Julius C. Chappelle had one of the most success- 
ful careers in Boston electoral politics of the late 
19th century. He was elected to the Republican 
State Central Committee, the Boston City Coun- 
cil, and the state legislature. He served in the state 
House of Representatives from 1883 to 1886, the 
longest continuous tenure of any Black on Beacon 
Hill until Herbert Loring Jackson of Maiden 
served from 1951 to 1954. 



First City Appointment 



The first appointment of an African-American to 
a city position in Boston appears to have been that 
of W. W. Bryant, who in 1885 was made deputy 
sealer of weights and measures. 



Cambridge Office Holder 



Clement G. Morgan, a graduate of Harvard Law 
School, was elected to the Cambridge Common 



94 



I^ouncil in 1895. He was later elected a Cambridge 
\lderman and appointed to the Highway Com- 
nission. 


Cambridge Office Holder 


20th Century 


William J. Williams, a lawyer, was the first Black 
elected to the Chelsea Board of Aldermen. His 
term was from 1902 to 1906. He also served as a 
captain in Company L of the State Militia. 


Chelsea Alderman 


Attorney E. E. Brown was appointed Assistant 
Health Commissioner for the city of Boston in 
1907 by Mayor Fitzgerald, a Democrat. The 
Guardian newspaper called Brown's appointment 
the "best position any colored man ever had in 
Boston." The newspaper went on to say, "The ap- 
pointment of a colored man to such a high-salar- 
ied position ($2,500 a year) displeased all color- 
prejudiced white politicians." Incoming Mayor 

inUUUcilU, d I\.C|JUUllCclll , ICllUJVCU DlUWll llUlll LllC 

job by abolishing the position, saying it was not 
needed. 


Top Position for "Colored 
Man" 


The first Blacks elected to the Massachusetts leg- 

i^lfltiirp in tVip 90th ppntiirv wprp T-T T pwi<; 

lOlClLUlV^ 111 tllV/ ^V/Lll V^CllLLllJ' Wvlt' VV llllCllll 11. l^tWlo 

(from Cambridge in 1909) and Lincoln Pope (from 
Boston in 1956), with Pope being the first Black 
Democrat to represent Boston in the legislature. 


First Massachusetts 

T poidiitrkrc 


Stewart E. Hoyt, who started as a clerk in the 
Boston tax collector's office, rose to the position of 
Deputy Tax Collector for the City in the 1920s, 
retiring in 1931. 


Deputy Tax Collector 


~ '. 

wiiiidiu JL. iveeu wds me iirsi j_/Aecuiive oecreidry 

of the Massachusetts Governor's Council, serving 

from 1924 to 1942. 


oecreidry ui ^jovernor s 
Council 


On April 28, 1936 JuHan Rainey was elected an 
alternate delegate to the Democratic National 
Convention. Helen Whiteman was elected an al- 
ternate delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention the same year. 


National Political Delegates 


95 



Balcom Taylor 



Silas Taylor 



Legendary Community 
Politicians 



From the mid- 1920s through the 1950s, brothers 
Silas F. and Balcom S. Taylor, Registered Phar- 
macists, championed voter registration, jobs, 
housing, and political participation for Blacks in 
Boston, when there were no elected Black officials 
in city or state government. Their drugstore on 
Tremont Street (Lincoln Pharmacy) served also as 
a place for building a community network, "pro- 
viding a voice" for Black neighborhoods at City 
Hall and the State House. Silas (Shag) Taylor, who 
served briefly on the state Parole Board, was the 
most powerful Democrat in the Black wards of 
Boston from the 1930s until his death in the late 
1950s. 



20th-century Statesman 



Herbert L. Jackson became one of the most suc- 
cessful Black politicians in the history of Massa- 
chusetts, serving some 30 years in public office 
from the 1940s to the 1970s. He was first elected 
in 1945 to a seat on the Maiden City Council, 
where he served until 1950, when he won his first 
of two terms as a state representative from Mai- 
den. After a losing bid for a third term, he was 
re-elected to the City Council, where he served as 
president in 1949, 1965, 1971, and 1975. The 
Council Chambers in Maiden are named in honor 
of Herbert Jackson. 



20th-century First 



96 



Lawrence Banks, a Republican, became the first 
African-American from Boston to serve in the 
Massachusetts legislature in the 20th century, when i. 
he was elected from Ward 9 in 1946. Banks also 
won election to the Boston City Council in 1949. 



i 



In 1950 Beulah H. Hester became the first Black 
appointed to the Boston Board of Overseers of 
Public Welfare. 



Public Welfare Overseer 



In 1952 Madeline D. Andrews was elected to the 
Medford School Committee. She was apparently 
the first Black woman elected to public office in 
Massachusetts. 



First Elected 
Black Woman 



Clarence Richard Elam (1923-1985) performed as 
a pioneering public servant as Assistant Director 
of Civil Defense for the City of Boston from 1950- 
52, Executive Secretary of the Governor's Council 
(1952-56), Chairman of the Boston Licensing 
Board (1956-74), and Special Assistant to Attor- 
ney General Edward W. Brooke (1964-66). 



Pioneering Public Servant 



In 1959 Frank Morris became the first African- 
American senior manager of a state agency in the 
history of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
when he was appointed to the position of director 
of the State Housing Board. Starting as a junior 
planner with the Board in 1948, Frank Morris had 
one of the longest careers — 38 years — of any 
Black in state government when he retired in 1986 
as Special Counsel to the Executive Office of 
Communities and Development which grew out of 
the State Housing Board. 



State Housing Board First 



Frank Morris 




97 



Edward W. Brooke 



Thomas Atkins 



In 1962 Edward W. Brooke, a Boston attorney, be- 
came the first African-American to be elected At- 
torney General for the Commonwealth. Two years 
later, in 1.964, he became the first African-Amer- 
ican elected to the United States Senate since Re- j 
construction. 1 



Thomas Atkins In 1967 Thomas Atkins became the first Black [ 

Bostonian to win a city-wide election to the Bos- ' 
ton City Council. He served two two-year terms ' 
before losing a campaign for mayor in 1971. 



First U.S. Senator since 
Reconstruction 



Newton Alderman Matthew Jefferson was the first Black to serve on 

the Newton Board of Aldermen. He repeatedly 

won election to the board in nine city-wide elec- \ 

tion campaigns after being chosen to join the ] 

board in 1968. In all he served as alderman for 20 [ 

years, six of those years as president. |: 

> 

I, 

Leader in Government Paul Parks served as Director of Model Cities un- j 

and Education der Boston Mayor Kevin White, first Massachu- j 

setts Secretary of Education under Governor 1; 
Frank Sargent, a member of the Board of Ap- 
peals in Boston, and president of the Board of 
Trustees, Boston Public Library. 



Two African-American women have held simulta- Dual Political Roles 

neously two elected political offices. Sandra Gra- 
ham of Cambridge served as City Councilor in her 
city from 1971 to 1989 and served as a state rep- 
resentative in the Massachusetts legislature from 
1977 to 1988. Shirley Owens-Hicks, while serving 
on the Boston School Committee in 1987, also was 
elected to state representative. 



In 1972 the Massachusetts Legislative Black Cau- Massachusetts Legislative 

cus was founded in an effort to coordinate the ef- Black Caucus 

forts of Black elected officials and make them 
more accountable to the Black community. 



John Boone served as Commissioner of the Mas- Correction Department First 
sachusetts Department of Correction from 1972 to 
August 1973. He was the first (and only) African- 
American to hold this position in the 74-year his- 
tory of the Department. 



Doris Bunte was the first African- American First Black Woman in 

woman to serve in the Massachusetts legislature. Legislature 
Elected in 1972, she served as state representative 
until 1985. 



In 1975 Bill Owens became the first African- 
American elected to the Massachusetts Senate, 
representing the Second Suffolk District. He served 
from 1976 to 1982. He was elected to the same 
seat in 1988 and remains the only African- Amer- 
ican in the State Senate. He and Shirley Owens- 
Hicks also have the distinction of being the first 
brother-and-sister team to serve in the Massachu- 
setts legislature. 



First Black State Senator 



Bill Owens 



Doris Bunte 




99 



Bruce Boiling, Royal Boiling, Jr., 
and Royal Boiling, Sr. (left to right) 




Leading City Official Clarence "Jeep" Jones was the first African-Amer- 

ican to serve as a Deputy Mayor of Boston in 1976, 
where he served until 1981 under Mayor Kevin H. 
White. In 1989 Jones was appointed by Mayor 
Raymond L. Flynn as Chairman of the Boston 
Redevelopment Authority, another first for an Af- 
rican-American. 



Government Administrator On his way to an affirmative action meeting with 

the Boston Redevelopment Authority on April 5, 
1976, African-American attorney Theodore 
Landsmark was physically assaulted by anti-bus- 
ing demonstrators on City Hall plaza. One of the 
demonstrators swung an American flag at him. 
Landsmark's flag flogging and resulting injuries 
became a national symbol of racial intolerance in 
Boston. At the time of the attack, Landsmark was 
director of the Contractors Association of Boston. 
Since that time he has held a succession of key 
government posts: the first African-American ap- 
pointed as director of the Massachusetts Bay 
Transportation Authority (1977); director of the 
Mayor's Office of Jobs and Community Services 
(1989); director of the Safe Neighborhoods Pro- 
gram for the city of Boston (1990). 



The Boiling family represented a phenomenon un- Boiling Family: Political 

precedented in Boston politics in the early 1980s, Phenomenon 

when three members held elective office at the 

same time — Royal Boiling, Sr., served as state 

senator, while his son Royal Boiling, Jr., served 

as state representative, and his son Bruce Boiling 

served on the Boston City Council. In 1986 Bruce 

Boiling was elected Council president, a first for 

an African-American in Boston government. 



In 1983 Mel King changed Boston's political his- Mel King 

tory when he became the first Black mayoral can- 
didate in the city's history to win a preliminary 
election and run in the general election for control 
of Boston City Hall. While defeated in the runoff" 
by Ray Flynn, he gathered 30 percent of the gen- 
eral vote and 90 percent of the Black vote. A for- 
mer five-time elected state representative from 
Lower Roxbury and the South End, King cur- 
rently heads MIT's Community Fellows Program. 
For more than 35 years he and his wife Joyce have 
been steadfast advocates for community control 
and improvement in Boston. 



Melvin King 




101 



City Treasurer First In 1984 George Russell, Jr., became the first Af- 

rican-American to hold the office of City Treas- 
urer, following his appointment by Mayor 
Raymond L. Flynn. 



Yancey Makes State Ballot In 1986 Boston City Councilor Charles Yancey was 

the first African-American representing the Dem- 
ocratic Party to secure a position on a statewide 
ballot in his bid to become State Auditor. 



Media and Political Strategist In 1986 the Boston Globe called media and polit- ' 

ical strategist Joyce Ferriabough the only woman 
to break into the campaign managers' circle when 
she guided Charles Yancey's historic run for State 
Auditor. Regularly quoted in the news media for 
her views on political trends, especially as they re- 
flect the minority community, Ferriabough has ■ 
been a participant in a number of firsts. She was f 
Press Secretary/New England for Rev. Jesse Jack- 
son's first run for the presidency in 1984. She 
helped craft, promote and lobby for the city's link- ; 
age legislation, a first for the city of Boston. || 



In 1986 The Black Political Task Force joined 
forces with the Rainbow Coalition, the Massachu- 
setts Latino Democratic Committee, and the Asian \ 
Political Caucus to challenge the redistricting plan ■ 
put forth by the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives. Redistricting is the process by which \ 
city, state, and federal districts are drawn, based 
upon shifts in the population. The Task Force : 
charged that the redistricting plan did not reflect ^ 
the increases in the African-American and His- ; 
panic communities shown in the most recent cen- 
sus. The Task Force also charged that the plan 
violated the constitutional guarantee of one per- r 
son/one vote and diluted voter strength by "pack- - 
ing" Blacks in specific areas and "cracking" \ 
Hispanics in areas throughout the city (a practice i 
known as gerrymandering). This successful chal- 
lenge led to the creation of a new district, the Fifth 
Suffolk District, from which the first Hispanic 
State Representative, Nelson Merced, was elected. 



Creating Political 
Opportunities 



102 



Ronald H. Brown, who spent his early childhood Chairman of National 

in Roxbury and attended the David A. Ellis Democratic Party 

School, became Chairman of the National Dem- 
ocratic Party in 1989, a historic first for an Afri- 
can-American, 



103 



Law 



18th Century 



Slave Sued Master In 1773 slave Caesar Hendricks took his master to 

court "for detaining him in slavery"; the all-white 
jury freed Hendricks and awarded him damages. 



19th Century 



First Licensed Attorney Macon B. Allen, who was the first licensed Afri- 

can-American attorney in the United States (he 
passed the bar exam in Maine in 1844), was the 
first to practice law in Boston, having been admit- 
ted to the Suffolk County, Massachusetts bar in 
May 1845. He became a Justice of the Peace in 
1848 and practiced law in Massachusetts until 
1870. 



First Attorney to Pass 


Robert Morris was the first attorney in Massachu- 


Massachusetts Exam 


setts to pass the Massachusetts bar examination in 




1847. 


First Jurors 


African- Americans first served as jurors in Mas- 




sachusetts in 1860. 


First Black Lawyer before 


John Sweat Rock (1825-1866), a noted Boston 


Supreme Court 


lawyer, became in 1865 the first African- Ameri- 




can to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court and 




the first Black person to speak before the U.S. 




House of Representatives. 


Prominent New Bedford 


Emmanual Sullavou was a prominent lawyer in 


Lawyer 


New Bedford in the late 1800s. Having graduated 




from Harvard in 1871, he was admitted to the 




Massachusetts bar in 1875. He served on the New 




Bedford City Council and as a clerk of the district 




court. 


104 



Robert Morris 



IS Archibald H. Grimke (1849-1930) was the second Early Civil Rights Leader 

African- American to graduate from Harvard Law 
School (1874). While struggling to establish a law 
practice in Boston, he started the first Black news- 

."paper in New England, The Hub, in 1883. The 
paper, a voice of protest for Blacks in New Eng- 
land, lasted until 1886. While an alternate dele- 
gate to Henry Cabot Lodge at the Republican 
National Convention in 1884, he became a leader 
of the Black "independents" in politics, saying, 
"The Republican party is no longer devoted to the 
colored man." In 1884 he was appointed by Pres- 
ident Cleveland to be the consul at Santo Dom- 
ingo in the Dominican Republic. A founder of the 
NAACP, he was a civil rights leader from the era 
of slavery until his death on the eve of the Great 
Depression. 



105 



In remarkable achievements in widely different 
fields, Hamilton S. Smith not only became the first 
African-American to receive a law degree from 
Boston University in 1879, but in 1889 he also re- 
ceived a doctor of dentistry degree from Howard 
University. 



First Black Judge George L. Ruffin of Boston became the first Af- 

rican-American judge in Massachusetts with his 
appointment in 1883 to the District Court of 
Charlestown. He served in this position until his 
death in 1886. In 1869 he was the first African- 
American to earn a law degree from Harvard Uni- 
versity. In 1984 the Justice George Lewis Ruffin 
Society was established by Black senior-level crim- 
inal justice professionals in Massachusetts, led by 
Judge Julian Houston. The Society, hosted by 
Northeastern University, encourages greater un- 
derstanding between the Black community and 
criminal justice professionals. A portrait of Judge 
Ruffin was unveiled at Charlestown District Court 
in February 1990. 



Remarkable Lawyer 
and Dentist 



20th Century 



Founder of Resthaven Edgar P. Benjamin, an 1894 graduate of Boston 

Nursing Home University's Law School, established a private 

practice in civil and criminal law of which he said, 
"I am sole counsel for many large firms and cor- 
porations, and businesses, many of which are 
white. . . ." In 1927 Benjamin founded Resthaven, 
a charitable nursing home for the elderly on Fisher 
Avenue in Roxbury. Today Resthaven Nursing 
Home is a 260-bed facility carrying on the tradi- 
tion of community service begun by Edgar R Ben- 
jamin. 



Outstanding WiUiam H. Lewis (1869-1949), long recognized as 

Criminal Lawyer one of Boston's outstanding criminal lawyers, was 

the first African-American to hold the position of 
Assistant United States Attorney General, ap- 
pointed by President Taft in 1911. 



106 




William H. Lewis 



Attorney John W. Schenck (1869-1962), admitted 
to the Massachusetts Bar in 1914, was appointed 
Assistant U.S. Attorney in Boston in 1920 and 
held that position until 1933. During that time he 
handled most of the immigration cases in the 
Commonwealth. 



Noted Immigration 
Lawyer 



Henry E. Quarles, Sr., born in Boston in 1906, 
and a graduate of Suffolk Law School in 1928, is 
considered "The Dean" of Black lawyers in Bos- 
ton. He holds the distinction of having the longest 
legal career — 61 years of practice as an attorney 
— in Boston. He received an Honorary Doctor of 
Law from Suffolk in 1979 and was the first Black 
lawyer to appear in courts in cities and towns out- 
side of Boston and in Maine, New Hampshire, and 
Vermont. 



'Dean" of Black Lawyers 



In the 1930s Julian Rainey became the first As- 
sistant Corporation Counsel for the city of Bos- 
ton. 



First City Lawyer 



107 



Matthew Bullock 



Harry J. Elam 



First on Parole Board In the 1930s Matthew Bullock became the first 

Black appointed to the Massachusetts Parole 
Board. 



First Black Judge In 1948 Bruce Robinson became the first Black 

appointed to the bench in Massachusetts. He was 
named Associate Justice of the Boston Juvenile 
Court by Governor Robert Bradford. 



Assistant Attorney General Glendora Putnam was the first African-American 

female lawyer to serve as an assistant Attorney 
General for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
She served under three state Attorneys General 
from 1963 to 1969: Edward W. Brooke, Elliot 
Richardson, and Robert Quinn. 



Distinguished Black Judge, Harry J. Elam became the first Black to serve as 
Harry J. Elam a Justice in the more than 300-year history of the 

Boston Municipal Court when he was appointed 
in 1971 as an Associate Justice. In 1978 he was 
the unanimous choice of the full bench of the Su- 
preme Judicial Court to serve a five-year term as 
Chief Justice of the Boston Municipal Court, 
again a first for a Black lawyer. In 1979 he 
founded Project Commitment, in which trial 
judges bring caring adults into the Boston public 
schools to provide positive role models for stu- 
dents in an effort to reduce the number of young 
people that come before the criminal courts. In 
1983 Judge Elam was appointed as Associate Jus- 
tice of the Massachusetts Superior Court, a posi- 
tion he held until his retirement in 1988. 



108 



Joyce London Alexander became the first Black 


First Female Federal 


woman in the country appointed as a federal mag- 


Magistrate 


istrate in Boston when she was named to that post 




by President Jimmy Carter in 1979. 




David S. Nelson became the first Black federal 


First Federal Judge 


judge in Massachusetts in 1979. 




Margaret Burnham, the first Black female lawyer 


Two Firsts for Margaret 


to practice in Boston Municipal Court, was also 


Burnham 


the first African-American woman appointed as- 




sociate justice in 1977, a position she held until 




1983. 




In 1989 Rudolph F. Pierce became the first Afri- 


President of Boston 


can-American to be elected President of the Bos- 


Bar Association 


ton Bar Association, the oldest local bar 




association in the nation, founded in 1761 by John 




Adams. 





Wayne A. Budd was nominated for U.S. Attorney Wayne A. Budd, 

by President George Bush in March 1989 and U.S. Attorney 

confirmed for the position by the U.S. Senate in 
September 1989. A native of Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, he was the first African-American presi- 
^ dent of the Massachusetts Bar Association (1979- 
80) and headed New England's largest Black- 
owned law firm before his historic appointment as 
the U.S. Attorney for Massachusetts. 



Wayne Budd, U.S. Attorney 




Attorneys Judith Dilday, Geraldine Hines, and Margaret 
Burnham 



First Black Attorneys Margaret Burnham, Geraldine Hines, 

Female Law Firm and Judith Dilday established the first Black fe- 

male law firm in New England in 1989. Located 
in Boston, Burnham, Hines and Dilday specialize 
in family law, divorce, wills, custody, and civil and 
criminal litigation. 



First Court The Roxbury District Court Child Care Center was 

Child Care Center the first court-affiliated drop-in care center in New 

England for families who must bring their chil- 
dren with them when they have court business. 
Roxbury District Court Judge Julian T. Houston, 
now a Superior Court judge, worked for four years 
to bring his idea of such a center to fruition in 
May 1989. Parents with court business and no 
child care arrangements or with children waiting 
to appear in court proceedings can use the center 
free of charge. Initial funding for the center start- 
up and space renovation came from public and 
private sources, including Bank of Boston. Asso- 
ciated Day Care Services of Metropolitan Boston 
developed and now operates the center, located in 
the Dudley Branch Library, with Massachusetts 
Department of Social Services and United Way 
funds. 



110 



I With his election in 1990, Barack H. Obama be- Harvard Law Review 

came the first Black president of the Harvard Law President 
. Review in its 103-year history. 77?^ Review is man- 
1 aged and edited by 78 student editors selected 
from Harvard's 1,600 law students. In its first 85 
years, The Review has had three Black editors: 
Charles Houston, a civil rights attorney; William 
T. Coleman, Secretary of Transportation under 
■ President Gerald Ford; and William Hastie, a fed- 
I eral appeals judge. 



I In March 1990 Judith Dilday became the first Af- Women's Bar Association 

I rican-American president of the prestigious Wom- President 
len's Bar Association. Just the year before she had 
j helped establish the first Black female law firm in 
i New England, Burnham, Hines and Dilday. 



Ill 



Journalism 


19th Century 


First Black Newspaper 


Boston's first Black newspaper of record before the 
Civil War was the Emancipator and Free Ameri- 
can, founded in 1842 and closed in 1844. 


Liberator 


From 1832 to 1865 the Liberator was a powerful 
anti-slavery and "underground" newspaper for 
Black citizens. Founded and published by the fiery i 
white abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison, the 
paper had Black reporters and columnists. 


Black Newspaper 
Publisher 


In 1838 Benjamin Roberts (who worked for The 
Liberator under William Lloyd Garrison) estab- 
lished the Anti-Slavery Herald, intended to be an 
anti-slavery journal by and for Blacks in Boston. 
Only a few issues were printed. In 1853 Roberts 
tried again estabhshing a Black paper called Self 
Elevator. 




112 



William Lloyd Garrison 



William C. Nell of Boston, an early writer-re- 
porter for the Liberator, was also a pioneering 
Black historian, having written Services of the 
Colored Americans in the Wars 1776 and 1812 
(1852) and The Colored Patriots of the American 
Revolution with Sketches of Several Distinguished 
Colored Persons to Which Is Added a Brief Sur- 
vey of the Condition and Prospects of Colored 
Americans (1855). 



Pioneering Black 
Historian 



Lillian Lewis was the first African-American 
woman journalist in Boston. In the 1880s, she 
wrote for The Advocate, a Black community 
newspaper. She then went to The Boston Herald, 
writing under the name of Bert Islew, scrambling 
the letters of her last name to disguise the fact 
that she was a woman, as female journalists were 
"frowned upon" by society. 



First Female Journalist 



J. Gordon Street was a journalist for three of Bos- 
ton's white newspapers in the 1880s: the Boston 
Beacon, the Boston Evening Record, and The Bos- 
ton Herald. Critical of the white American press's 
neglect of discrimination faced by Blacks in the 
late 19th century, he established a Black newspa- 
per, 772^ Boston Courant, as an equal rights paper 
in 1890. 



Founder of Equal Rights 
Newspaper 



Bob Teamoh was perhaps the first African-Amer- Early Black Reporter 

ican reporter for a white newspaper in Boston, 
having obtained a staff position in 1890 with The 
Boston Daily Globe. He was elected to the state 
legislature in 1894. 



The Afro-American Press and Its Editors, the Early Black Newspapers 

Boston Co-Operator, The Boston Leader, The Ad- 
vocate, the Courant, and The Boston Observer 
were early Black newspapers in Boston during the 
1880s and 1890s. 



20th Century 



The Colored American Magazine, the first signifi- Colored American 

cant Black periodical to appear in Boston in the Magazine 
20th century, was started in Boston in May 1900 



113 



Of One Blood ; or, The Hidden Self, by M iss Hopkins. BBelnsinThisN gmber 

■■■■■■■■■■■■■■^^■■■^^^■■■■■^■■■^■■■■■■Mii^V 

COLOREDANERICAN 

MAGAZINE 



15CENT5 A Number November, 1902 $1.50 a Year. 




Cover of The Colored American Magazine, November 1902 



114 



by the Colored Cooperative Publishing Company. ^^^^^^^ American 

It was "devoted to Literature, Science, Music, Art, Magazine 
Religion, Facts, Fiction, and Traditions of the Ne- 
gro race." 



The Boston Guardian newspaper, a major 20th- 
century civil rights publication, was founded in 
Boston in 1901 by William Monroe Trotter, who 
published the newspaper until his death in 1934. 
For the next 23 years (1934-1957), Trotter's sister, 
Maude Trotter Steward, and her husband. Dr. 
Charles Steward, edited and published the paper, 
keeping alive the spirit of the Black news medium 
at a great sacrifice. 



Boston Guardian 




William Monroe Trotter 
115 




I 

i 

J 

George W. Forbes j 

i 



Writer on Race Politics During the first quarter of the 20th century George 

W. Forbes (1864-1927) was an important journal- 
ist for national race politics. From 1893 to 1903, 
he edited the Boston Courant, one of Boston's 
early Black newspapers. He helped start the Bos- 
ton Guardian, founded and published by William 
M. Trotter in 1901. He wrote the "flaming and 
scorching" editorials for The Guardian denounc- 
ing Booker T. Washington. Leaving The Guardian 
in 1904, he edited the African Methodist Episco- 
pal Review. Forbes contributed articles on race re- jj 
lations and Black history to the Springfield : 
Republican and the Boston Transcript and did ; 
book reviews for the NAACP's Crisis magazine. 



The Boston Chronicle, from 1920 to 1967, was 1 

"New England's largest Negro Weekly Newspa- | 

per." Published and edited by Alfred Haughton f 

with William Harrison as Associate Editor, this : 

Black community newspaper covered local, state- \ 

wide, regional, national, and international news ; 
of people, places, and events. 



William Worthy, Jr., born in Boston in 1921 and 
educated in its public schools, served as an emi- 
nent and significant foreign correspondent and 
columnist for the Baltimore Afro-American from 
1951 to 1980; as a special CBS News correspond- 
ent in China, Africa, and the Soviet Union be- 
tween 1955-57; and as a Nieman Fellow in 
journalism at Harvard University during 1956-57. 
Worthy is still active as a free-lance journalist and 
lecturer. 



Largest Negro Weekly 
Newspaper 



Eminent Foreign 
Correspondent 



116 



William Worthy 



WILD Radio has been on the air since 1953 and WILD Radio 

in 1972 became the only urban contemporary ra- 
dio station owned and operated by African-Amer- 
icans, the Sheridan Broadcasting Company. In 
1980, African-American media entrepreneur Ken- 
dell Nash purchased the station from Sheridan and 
has been its owner and president since that time. 



Gretchen Jackson was the first African-American First on Radio 

woman to have a sponsored and sustained day- 
time radio program in Boston from 1953 to 1961. 
As a disc jockey and talk-show interviewer, she 
was heard first on WBOS and later on WBMS. 



In 1954 George Forsyth became the first African- Newspaper/Radio/TV 
American reporter to be hired by the Boston Trav- Pioneer 
eler, the afternoon paper owned by the Boston 
Herald. Beginning as a street reporter, he became 
a feature writer and drama and entertainment 
critic. In 1968 he joined the staff" of WHDH-TV 
as an on-air reporter, transferring to WHDH-ra- 
dio in 1972. In 1975 he moved to public affairs 
with the U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services in Boston. This pioneering Black journal- 
ist was born in Roxbury, graduated from English 
High School, and received his degree in journal- 
ism from Boston University after serving in World 
War II. 



Newspaper Professional Dexter D. Eure, Sr., completed 25 years of service 

at The Boston Globe in 1989. He had started as 
an assistant to the manager of circulation in 1963 
and five years later became an assistant to the ed- 
itor for urban affairs. For two years he was the 
only Black American in Boston with a weekly col- 
umn. Later he organized the Globe's Community 
Relations Department to improve the paper's cov- 
erage of Black people, their viewpoints, and events 
in the Black community, becoming its first direc- 
tor. Eure was also the first Globe employee to join 
the paper's contributions committee, which be- 
came The Globe Foundation, in which he now 
serves as a director. 



Bay State Banner The Bay State Banner, Boston's African- Ameri- 

can newspaper founded in 1965 and published by 
Melvin Miller, celebrated its 25th anniversary in 
1990. 



20 Years or More An impressive roster of journalists have "made ; 

in Journalism news" on the Boston scene for more than 20 years. 

Among them: Robert (Bob) Jordan, columnist and 
editorial writer with the Boston Globe and the first ; 
African- American elected to head the Globe's 
1,200 member employees' union in 1989; Sarah 
Ann Shaw and Walter Sanders, general assign- ; 
ment reporters at WBZ-TV; WGBH-TV and 
WBZ-radio talk show host Lovell Dyett; Gary 
Armstrong, general assignment reporter at Chan- ; 
nel 7; and Luix Overbea, formerly a writer for The 
Christian Science Monitor and now a TV show 
host for the Monitor. Others achieving career sue- ; 
cess in journalism include Channel 5's anchor Jim 
Boyd, as well as Carmen Fields of Channel 2, and .i 
Tanya Hart, formerly with WBZ-TV and more re- 
cently with the new and successful Black Enter- 
tainment Network. Behind the scenes for some 20 
years have been cameramen Richard Chase at 
Channel 4; Therman Toon at Channel 7; and, at 
Channel 5, Donnat Mitchell and Bob Wilson (for- 
merly with Channel 2). In the competitive field of 
journalism, their longevity is a significant career 
accomplishment for these African-Americans. 



118 




Liz Walker Melvin Miller 



"Say Brother," produced by WGBH-TV (Channel Long-Running TV Programs 
2) for the past 20 years, is the longest running tel- 
evision show targeted to the African-American 
and minority communities in Boston. "Urban Up- 
date" (formerly "Black News") on WHDH (Chan- 
nel 7) is a close second with a nearly 18-year on- 
air history. 



Janet Langhart was the first African-American First Talk Show Host 

woman to host a daytime TV talk and variety 
show in Boston. Between 1973 and 1978 she co- 
hosted the Good Morning Show, later named the 
Good Day Show, with Jack Willis on WCVB-TV, 
Channel 5. 



WNEV-TV (now WHDH-TV, Channel 7) in Bos- 
ton was the first major television station in the 
country to have Black people as majority owners 
when, between 1981 and 1986, Bertram Lee, Ruth 
Batson, Thomas Brown, Henry Hampton, Joyce 
Fredkin, Melvin Miller, and Barron Martin were 
major stockholders. 



In 1982 Liz Walker became the first African- Prime Time First 

American in Boston's TV history to anchor a 

prime time weekly newscast. She co-hosts the 6:00 

and 11:00 p.m. newscasts on WBZ-TV (Channel 

4). 



Former Owners 
of Cliannel 7 



119 



TV Executive First When Donna Latson Gittens was named vice pres- 

ident of community programming for WCVB-TV 
in 1983, she became the first African- American in 
the history of local television to assume this exec- 
utive position and one of a relatively few in the 
nation. 



120 



Military Service 



18th Century 



Among 101 members recruited into Captain Three Blacks 

Thomas Cheyney's Massachusetts militia com- in 1747 Militia 

pany for an expedition into Canada in 1747 were 
three Blacks, listed as Will, Cuffee, and Samuel. 
(During slavery, slaves and even ex-slaves some- 
times did not have surnames, or were not referred 
to by whites by their surnames.) 



Barzillai Lew of Cambridge, who had been a Served General Washington 

member of the Massachusetts fighting unit during 
the French and Indian War of 1760, was one of 
the full seven-year veterans of the American Rev- 
olution. He directly served General George Wash- 
ington and later headed an all-Black unit in Rhode 
Island during the final years of the Revolution. 



Crispus Attucks, an ex-slave from Framingham, Crispus Attacks 

was the first to die in the Boston Massacre (1770), 

which some historians mark as the beginning of 

the American Revolutionary War. Attucks led a 
j small group of colonists to a British garrison on 
1 King Street in Boston. One of the British soldiers 
i panicked and fired. Attucks was the first to fall. 

In 1851 Boston Black leaders William C. Nell, 

Charles Remond, Lewis Hayden, and Joshua B. 

Smith petitioned the state legislature for the erec- 
tion of a monument in memory of Attucks. 

Thirty-seven years later, in 1888, their request was 

honored when a monument to the victims of the 

massacre was erected on Boston Common, where 

it stands today. 



121 



Crispus Attucks statue of the Boston Massacre 



Black Minutemen Peter Salem of Framingham, Job Potomea and Is- 

aiah Barjonah of Stoneham, Cuff Whitemore of 
Cambridge, Prince of Brookline, and Pompey of 
Braintree were among the Blacks in greater Boston 
who joined the Minutemen before the battle of 
Lexington, April 19, 1775. Salem is remembered 
for fatally shooting British officer Major Pitcairn 
during the Battle of Bunker Hill. 



Bucks of America During the American Revolutionary War, the 

Bucks of America, commanded by George Mid- 
dleton, a fiery Black resident of Boston, was one 
of two all-Black units. The Bucks of America were 
hailed throughout the Commonwealth for their I 
bravery and performance at the Battle of Bunker t 
Hill in June 1775. ,| 



122 



19th Century 



Richard Seavers, a Black Boston seaman who en- Refused to Fight 

tered the British navy prior to the outbreak of the Against the U.S. 

War of 1812, refused to fight against the United 
States and was therefore sentenced to England's 
Dartmoor Prison. 



There were two all-Black units, the Massasoit 
Guards and the Liberty Guards in Boston in the 
1850s, but they were not attached to the militia of 
the State because there was opposition "to there 
being any Colored men belonging to the State Mi- 
litia." Many of these men eventually joined the 
Massachusetts regiments that fought in the Civil 
War battles. 



The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was the first 
Black unit organized in the North during the Civil 
War. Led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, member 
of a prominent white abolitionist family, this unit 
displayed heroism unsurpassed by any fighting 
group. North or South, most notably during the 



Two All-Black 
Fighting Units 



54th Massachusetts 
Regiment 




assault on Fort Wagner in Charleston, S.C. An ^^^^ Massachusetts 

imposing bas-relief sculpture by Augustus Saint- Regiment 
Gaudens, the 54th Regiment Memorial, stands 
opposite the State House at Beacon and Park 
Streets. The heroic soldiers memorialized on the 
monument are: Lewis Clark, William H, Morris, 
Henry Albert, Charles Van Allen, John W. Wins- 
low, Lewis C. Green, Samuel Sufshay, James 
Buchanan, William Wilson, Thomas R. Ampey, 
John Hall, Joseph D. Wilson, Jason Champain, 
Cyrus Krunkleton, George Vanderpool, William 
Brady, Charles M. Holloway, William Thomas, 
Henry F. Burghardt, Abraham Brown, John Tan- 
ner, Andrew Clark, Thomas Bowman, Charles S. 
Gamrell, Edward Williams, Henry Craig, Lewis J. 
Locard, Robert McJohnson, Cornelius Watson, 
Josephus Curry, Charles E. Nelson, Franklin Wil- 
lis, Cornelius Price, William Edgerly, Elisha Bur- 
kett, John Miller, Richard M. Foster, Albert 
Evans, Augustus Lewis, Anthony Scheneck, Wil- 
liam S. Everson, Samuel Ford, Henry King, Willis 
J. Smith, Henry Dennis, William Henry Harrison 
II, John H. Johnson, Edward Darks, Edward 
Hines, James P. Johnson, Benjamin Hogan, and 
George E. Jackson. The 54th Regiment was re- 
cently portrayed in the film "Glory." 



Sergeant William Carney of New Bedford, a Congressional Medal of 

member of the famed 54th Massachusetts Regi- Honor Winner 

ment during the Civil War, was the first African- 
American awarded the Congressional Medal of 
Honor for bravery at the battle of Fort Wagner in 
July 1863. The U.S. flag he saved during the bat- 
tle still hangs in the Hall of Flags at the State 
House in Boston. 



The 55th Massachusetts Regiment commanded by 55th Massachusetts 

Colonel Hallowell of Boston acquitted itself val- Regiment 
iantly during many Civil War battles, particularly 
in the battle of Honey Hill in South Carolina, 
where its determined resistance to advancing 
southern forces saved the lives of numerous Fed- 
eral troops. In 1986, 19 skeletons unearthed in 
South Carolina were determined to be the remains 
of men of the Massachusetts 55th. The remains 
were re-interred in a special Memorial Day service 
on May 30, 1989, in Beaufort, South Carolina. 



125 



Black Nurse in Civil War Susie King Taylor (1848-19?), who distinguished 

herself as a nurse with the Union forces during the 
Civil War, moved to Boston in 1874 to work as a 
laundress. In 1886 she helped organize Corps 67 
of the Boston Branch of the Women's Relief 
Corps, the auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, assuming the presidency in 1893. In 1896 
she identified many veterans living in Boston. In 
1902 she published her autobiography in Boston 
entitled. Reminiscences of My Life in Camp: With 
the 33rd United States Colored Troops. 



20th Century 



Heroic Soldier Sergeant Wilham E. Carter (1858-1918), for whom 

the Carter Playground in Boston's South End is 
named, served in the Spanish-American War, the 
Massachusetts National Guard from 1899 to 1917, 
and in World War I, where he was killed in action 
in October 1918. 



In 1906 James H. Wolff, a lawyer and Civil War 
veteran, was elected head of the Massachusetts 
Commandery of the Grand Army of the RepubHc, 
a largely white organization. 



Early Career Officer Colonel Frank M. Snowden (1885-1947) of Boston 

joined the U.S. Army in 1907 and rose through 
the ranks, in an era when few Blacks became of- 
ficers, to become a colonel. After leaving the ser- 
vice in 1945 he served as civilian executive of the 
First Service Command (U.S. Army) in Boston. 



World War I Lieutenants When the 17th Provisional Training Regiment at 

Des Moines, Iowa, graduated 278 Blacks as Army 
lieutenants at the beginning of World War I, 
eleven of the graduates were from Massachusetts 
and two of them, Oliver Lewis and Edward Dug- 
ger, were African-Americans from Roxbury. Ed- 
ward Dugger helped to organize and gain official 
recognition for a Black Massachusetts National 
Guard unit, the 372nd Infantry, after his return 
from fighting in France and his discharge from the 
Army at the end of the war. 



Head of Massachusetts 
Commandery 



126 



Edward O. Gourdin sworn in by Gov. Foster Furcolo, 1957 



Edward O. Gourdin commanded the 372nd Regi- Commander at Pearl Harbor 
ment during World War II and was commander 
of ground defense at Pearl Harbor. After the war 
he served as a member of the Secretary of War's 
Discharge Review and later as Acting Judge Ad- 
vocate of the Massachusetts National Guard. He 
later became a judge in the Roxbury District Court 
and a member of the Massachusetts Judicial 
Court. 



Royal BoUing, Sr., was awarded the Purple Heart, Purple Heart Recipient 

the Combat Infantry Badge, four battle stars, and 
the third highest military award for valor, the Sil- 
ver Star, as the result of his outstanding service 
during the 92nd Infantry Division's campaign in 
Italy during World War II. 



127 




David L. Ramsay 



Valiant Navy Admiral 



Gerald E. Thomas of Natick and Boston rose to 
become a Rear Admiral in the U.S. Navy. His first 
command was in 1962 aboard the USS Imper- 
vious, an ocean minesweeper operating in the 
western Pacific. He also commanded the De- 
stroyer Squadron NINE and the Cruiser-De- 
stroyer Group FIVE. Thomas's medals and awards 
include the Navy Occupation Service Medal with 
Europe Clasp, The National Defense Service 
Medal with Bronze Star, The Armed Services Ex- 
peditionary Medal (Vietnam), and the Vietnam 
Service Medal with two Bronze Stars. 



Air Hero in Vietnam 



David L. Ramsay, born and raised in Boston, a 
graduate of English High School and the U.S. 
Military Academy at West Point, rose to become 
a captain in the U.S. Air Force. The recipient of 
many military honors, including the Air Force's 
highest award, the Distinguished Flying Cross, he 
died in battle while piloting a fighter jet in Viet- 
nam in 1970. In 1973, a decade before the nation 
unveiled its first monument to the Vietnam war 
dead, a group of Roxbury veterans named Bos- 
ton's only Black VFW post at 54 Woodrow Ave- 
nue in Dorchester for Ramsay. Located at the 
corner of Washington and Ball Streets in lower 
Roxbury, near Melnea Cass Boulevard, the David 
L. Ramsay Park has been established in his mem- 
ory. 



Rear Admiral in U.S. Navy 



Wendell Norman Johnson of Boston rose to the 
rank of Rear Admiral in the U.S. Navy in 1983 
and was Commander (1987-1989) of the U.S. Na- 
val Base in Charleston, South Carolina, the third 
largest naval base in the United States. 



128 



Religion 



19th Century 



While Black people in Boston attended white Church in Faneuil Hall 

churches after the American Revolution, increas- 
ing incidents of racial discrimination moved them 
to request the use of Faneuil Hall for religious 
meetings. Permission was granted in 1789 and the 
non-denominational prayer services led to the es- 
tablishment of the first independent Black church 
group in Boston in 1805, the African Baptist 
Church. 



In December 1806 Rev. Thomas Paul (who had First Black Church 

been an "exhorter" of scripture passages since age 
sixteen) formally organized and became the first 
minister of the first Black church in Boston at the 
African Meeting House on Beacon Hill. 



Rev. Leonard Grimes, who became the minister 
of Twelfth Baptist Church in 1848, led this his- 
toric church through the turbulent years of anti- 
slavery (1850-1865), serving the church until his 
death in 1873. Estabhshed in 1840, Twelfth Bap- 
tist is 150 years old. 



Bishop James A. Healy, born of mixed parentage Catholic Bishop 

on a Georgia plantation, served as a priest in Bos- 
ton's Irish immigrant neighborhoods in the 1850s. 
'He was named Chancellor of the Boston Arch- 
diocese in 1855 and Bishop of the Portland 
(Maine) Diocese in 1875. 



Rev. John Sella Martin, who served as pastor of Preacher at Tremont Temple 

the Joy Street Baptist Church (African Meeting 
House) around 1859, often served as guest 
preacher at the Tremont Temple, a mostly white 



Builder of the 
Twelfth Baptist 
Church 



129 



Preacher at Tremont Temple 



congregation. He addressed worshippers at thei 
Temple on January 1, 1863, when news of Presi- 
dent Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation 
reached Boston. In 1861 he had met with Lincoln 
to oppose the sending of ex-slaves back to Africa. 




Rev. Thomas Paul 

130 




Rev. Peter Randolph 



In 1871 ex-slaves from Virginia, led by Rev. Peter Ex-Slave Founded Church 

Randolph, founded Ebenezer Baptist Church, 
which celebrated 100 years of service in Boston in 
1981. 



n Myrtle Baptist Church in Newton, founded in Oldest Suburban Churches 
! 1874, and St. John's Baptist Church in Woburn, 
I founded in 1886, are the oldest Black churches in 
suburban Boston. 



In 1894, at the Church of St. Augustine, Oscar 
Lieber Mitchell was the first African-American or- 
dained into the priesthood of the Episcopal 
Church in Boston. 



20th Century 



Rev. John H. Dorsey, the second African-Ameri- 
j can priest in the American Catholic Church, cele- 
' brated Mass at the Cathedral of the Holy Cross in 
Boston's South End on August 17, 1902. The Pilot 
j said of his stay in Boston: "This young priest's visit 
to Boston has benefitted all classes." The Guard- 
ian, Boston's Black newspaper, said: "The Rev. 
j Father Dorsey was received with much enthusiasm 
[by the Catholic people of this city." 



The Church of St. Augustine and St. Martin, lo- 
icated in lower Roxbury, was founded by Black 
'Episcopalians in 1908. In 1981, after 73 years as 
a mission church of the Society of St. John the 
Evangelist, it became an independent church 
within the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. 



First Black 
Episcopal Priest 



Celebrant at Holy Cross 
Cathedral 



Early Episcopalians 



131 



t 




St. Cyprian's Episcopal Church 



St. Cyprian's St. Cyprian's Episcopal Church was the first 

Episcopal Church church built in Roxbury by Black people. Serving 

as a haven for immigrants from the West Indian 
islands in the early 1900s, St. Cyprian's was estab- 
lished in 1913. The cornerstone of its present 
building on Tremont Street was laid in 1923 and 
the church was dedicated in 1924. 



Peoples Baptist Church Over $130,000 for missionary and educational 

programs was raised by Rev. David S. Klugh of 
Peoples Baptist Church between 1918 and 1930. 



Malcolm X Malcolm X, formerly Malcolm Little (1925-1965), 

was one of the most fiery, controversial leaders of 
his time and one of the major Black leaders of the 
20th century. Growing up in Boston during the 
1940s, he became involved in criminal activities 



132 



which landed him a ten-year prison sentence. 
While in prison, he joined the Black Muslims. Pa- 
roled in 1952, he helped found the first Nation of 
Islam Temple (Temple 1 1 on Intervale Street) in 
Boston in 1954. Malcolm X was a world-renowned 
and respected defender of Black rights and pro- 
moter of Black self-empowerment. 



Dr. Howard Thurman, appointed Dean of the Leading Theologian 

Chapel at Boston University, became the first Af- 
rican-American in the country to serve as an ad- 
ministrative dean and spiritual leader at a 
predominantly white university. He served in this 
position from 1955 to 1965. A distinguished 
preacher and religious thinker, he shared insight 
into the religious experience of African-Ameri- 
cans with a body of books, essays, poetry, and 
sound recordings that crossed the boundaries of 
race and religion. 



A jazz concert of sacred music by the legendary First Jazz Concert 

Duke Ellington and his orchestra was performed in Boston Churcli 

at Union Methodist Church in July 1966, the first 
time a jazz performance had been held in a Bos- 
ton church. 



The Rev. John M. Burgess of Boston became the First Black 

first African-American diocesan Bishop of the Episcopal Bishop 

Episcopal Church in the United States in 1968. 



Rev. Howard Thurman 




Rev. Richard Owens 



Nation of Islam Leader Minister Louis Farrakhan, raised in Roxbury and 

a 1950 graduate of English High School, has been 
the national leader of the Nation of Islam since 
1977, following the death of the founder of the 
Nation, Elijah Muhammad. While viewed by some 
as controversial, Minister Farrakhan and the Na- 
tion of Islam have been outspoken proponents of 
economic self-help and self-determination for Af- 
rican-Americans, thereby making an important 
contribution to the economic empowerment of 
"people of color." In Boston, Minister Don Mu- 
hammad continues this tradition as the leader of 
the Nation and is a recognized and respected ad- 
vocate for African-Americans in Boston. 



In 1980 Rev. Richard M. Owens completed 43 
years of pastoring the historic Peoples Baptist 
Church, giving him the longest tenure for a Black 
minister in Boston's history. He was the first Black 
elected President of the American Baptist Con- 
vention of Massachusetts in 1969. 



Longest Tenure for 
a Black Minister 



134 




Charles Street AME Church, Charles Street, Beacon Hill, in 
the 1 9th century 



In 1983 Charles Street A.M.E. Church celebrated Charles Street 

its 150th anniversary. Founded in 1833 by Bos- A.M.E. Church 

ton's 19th-century Black community on Beacon 
Hill, it moved to its present site in upper Roxbury 
in 1939, the last Black church to move out of the 
Beacon Hill area. 



In 1988 Columbus Avenue A.M.E. Zion Church Scene of "Boston Riot" 

celebrated its 150th anniversary. Moving to its 
present site on Columbus Avenue in 1903, it was 
the scene of the famous "Boston Riot" in July 
1903, when Boston's militant equal rights leader 
William Monroe Trotter and Booker T. Washing- 
ton, the conservative educator from the South, 
disagreed on a human rights strategy for Black 
Americans. 



135 




Rev. Barbara C. Harris 



First Female Bishop The Reverend Barbara C. Harris was elected Suf- i 

fragan Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Mas- 
sachusetts in September 1988 and was consecrated ^ 
bishop in February 1989. She was the first woman, j 
Black or white, to be elected a bishop in the An- 
glican Communion. 



Rev. Michael E. Haynes Rev. Michael E. Haynes, installed as Senior Pas- 

tor of the Twelfth Baptist Church on October 24, 
1965, on the 125th anniversary of the historic i 
church, has served in that capacity for 25 years. 
In addition to his ministry, he served 17 years on 
the state Parole Board and in the 1970s as a state : 
representative from Roxbury. Currently he is a : 
member of the Fair Housing Commission. 



136 



I 



The number of Black churches in Boston grew 90 Black Churches 

from two in 1830 to five by 1850. One was the 
Free Church, later named Tremont Temple, estab- 
lished in 1836 as an integrated church protesting 
segregated seating in Boston's white churches. To- 
day there are over 90 churches in Boston that 
"identify with the African-American ethnic 
group." 



Rev. David T. Shannon became the first African- Theological School President 

American to head the 184-year-old Andover New- 
ton Theological School in Newton in 1991. This 
school is the nation's oldest Protestant graduate 
school of theology. 




I 



! 

Science/Technology/Medicine 



18th Century 



Slave Introduces The ravages of smallpox were lessened in the 1700s 

Smallpox Vaccination because Onesimus, a slave to Cotton Mather in 

Boston, introduced an African vaccination prac- 
tice that had made his body immune to the small- 
pox virus. Dr. Zabdiel Boylston of Boston 
inoculated some 240 people, following Onesimus's 
description of infecting healthy people to estab- 
lish an immune reaction to the virus; only six j 
came down with smallpox. During the American 
Revolutionary War this method of inoculation was 
used to prevent soldiers from contracting the dis- 
ease. 



19th Century 



Inventor of Whaling Harpoon Lewis Temple (c. 1810-1854), a blacksmith in New 

Bedford from 1830 to 1854, invented and manu- 
factured a whaling harpoon in 1848 that has been 
referred to as "the single most important invention 
in the history of whaling." The Temple Toggle, as 
it was called, became the standard whale har- 
poon, and 13,000 were manufactured between 
1848 and 1868. It is credited with increasing sig- 
nificantly the number of whales caught and with 
adding to the economic development of New Eng- 
land during the region's whaling period. 



Master Shipbuilder John Mashow (1805-1893) was a master ship- 

builder in New Bedford from 1840 to 1860. Con- 
tributing greatly to the U.S. maritime industry and 
to maritime architecture, he is credited with draft- 
ing and modeling some 100 ocean vessels, super- 
vising the construction of some 60 whale and 
merchant vessels, and building more than 25 
schooners. 



138 



Daniel Laing and Isaac H. Snowden of Boston Barred from 

and Martin R. Delany of Pittsburgh, in 1850, were Harvard Medical School 

the first Blacks admitted to Harvard Medical 
School. All three were dismissed, however, in 
1851, when white students protested their pres- 
ence; and the Dean of the medical school felt that 
"this experiment" proved "that intermixing of the 
white and Black races ... is distasteful to a large 
portion of the class and injurious to the interests 
of the school." 



In 1854 J. V. De Grasse (1825-1868) became the Medical First 

first Black physician admitted to the Massachu- 
setts Medical Association. 



Dimock Community Health Center in the Rox- Dimock Community 

bury section of Boston is the oldest health facility Health Center 

in the city oriented to the care of Black and low- 
income people. Founded in 1863 as the New Eng- 
land Hospital for Women and Children to provide 
medical training for white women, the hospital 
also included in its mission the provision of health 
care for low-income residents. In 1879 Mary Eliza 
Mahoney became the first African-American nurse 
in America when she graduated from this institu- 
tion. Renamed Dimock Community Health Cen- 
ter in 1969, this 127-year-old hospital, presently 
directed by Jackie Jenkins Scott, is a $7.5 million 
comprehensive health and human service opera- 
tion. Through preventive, diagnostic, and treat- 
ment programs, Dimock has enhanced the quality 
of life for ethnic minority residents for more than 
20 years. The Center also offers low-cost space to 
13 other nonprofit institutions, including centers 
for day care and job training. 



The first African-American female graduate of a M.D. Degree for Black Woman 

medical school was Rebecca Lee, who received an 
M.D. degree from the New England Female Med- 
ical College in Boston in 1864. 



Mary Eliza Mahoney (1845-1926), acknowledged First Black Trained Nurse 

to be the first Black trained nurse in America, 
graduated from the New England Hospital for 
Women and Children, now the Dimock Commu- 
nity Health Center, in 1879. While she was one of 
the few early Black members of The American 



139 



Mary Eliza Mahoney 



First Black Trained Nurse 



Nurses Association, she helped to organize The 
National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses 
in 1908. 



First Black Pharmacist 



Robert H. Carter of New Bedford (and great- 
grandfather of author/historian Robert C. Hay- 
den) was the first Black to practice pharmacy in 
Massachusetts, receiving his certification from the 
Commonwealth in 1886. He owned two drugstores 
in Boston between 1895 and 1905. 



140 




Lewis Latimer 



Lewis Latimer (1848-1928), born the son of a fu- Inventor of Light Bulb 

gitive slave (George Latimer) in Boston, became a Filament 
significant inventor with his development of an 
improved process for manufacturing the electric 
light bulb filament. He received a U.S. patent for 
his filament and became a member of Thomas 
Edison's research and development team (the Edi- 
son Pioneers) for over 20 years. 



Jan E. Matzeliger of Lynn invented a shoe lasting Revolutionized Shoemaking 
machine in 1888 that revolutionized the making of 
shoes. His invention led to the formation of the 
United Shoe Machinery Corporation in 1890. 



Nellie Brown Mitchell was the inventor of the Woman Inventor 

phoneterion, a device designed to aid "persons 
whose purity of tone is impaired because they can- 
not keep the tongue in place while singing." Mrs. 
Mitchell was the wife of Charles L. Mitchell, a 
prominent printer and community leader in the 
late 19th century. 



141 



Dr. Thomas W. Patrick, Sr. 



Dr. Solomon C. Fuller 



Patrick School of Pharmacy Dr. Thomas W. Patrick, pharmacist, founded the 

Patrick School of Pharmacy in Boston in 1893. 
Until 1936 he operated the school, where some 
5,000 Bostonians, mostly first- and second-gener- 
ation Italian, Irish, and Jewish immigrants, were 
trained to become certified pharmacists. 



Joseph Lee of Boston received a U.S. patent in 
1895 for a machine that made bread crumbs for 
the food industry. Several years later he received a 
second patent for the first machine to make bread 
dough. 



20th Century 



First Black Psychiatrist Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller (1872-1953), acknowl- 

edged as the first Black to practice psychiatry in 
America, graduated from Boston University's 
Medical School in 1897 and practiced psychiatry 
in Boston and Framingham until 1937. 



Leading Dentist Dr. W. Alexander Cox had a large dental practice 

among Black and white patients in Cambridge 
during the early 1900s. He was the founder and 
president of the dental section of the National 
Medical Association. In the late 1800s Dr. Cox 
was owner and publisher of the Advocate, the only 
newspaper owned and operated by an African- 
American in New England. 



Inventor of Bread Crumb 
Machine 



142 



Dr. Henry Lewis of Chelsea was appointed to the 
Massachusetts Board of Veterinary Physicians in 
1908. 



Black Veterinarian 



Plymouth Hospital and Nurses' Training School, 
founded and operated by Dr. Cornelius Garland, 
a Black doctor, from 1908 to 1928, contributed to 
the health care needs of Blacks and to Black com- 
munity development during the first quarter of the 
1900s. The hospital building still stands on East 
Springfield Street in Boston. 



Plymouth Hospital 




Operating room at Plymouth Hospital 



143 




Nursing graduates of Plymouth Hospital i 

; 

Pioneer Activist Doctor Dr. Louis T. Wright (1891-1952), a Harvard Med- ^ 

ical School graduate in 1915 and a leading 20th- : 
century Black physician, pioneered in the struggle ] 
for adequate health care and medical facilities un- 
til his death in 1952. His first struggle was in Bos- ; 
ton when he was denied the opportunity to attend ; 
pregnant women and deliver infants with his Har- 
vard classmates at Boston-Lying-in Hospital. "I 
paid my tuition," said Wright in his petition, "and \ 
I want what the catalogue calls for, namely [a po- \ 
sition in] obstetrics at Boston-Lying-in." Dr. 
Wright won his case. 



144 




Dr. William A. Hinton 



Dr. William A. Hinton (1883-1959) directed the Medical Breakthrough 

Wasserman Laboratory of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts at Harvard Medical School from 
1915 to 1949 and developed the famous Hinton 
test for syphilis, which was used to diagnose this 
venereal disease for over 40 years. 



'Dr. Jessie G. Garnett (1897-1976) was the first First Black Female Dentist 

Black woman dentist in Boston. A 1919 graduate 

of Tufts Dental School and the first Black woman 

to graduate from Tufts Dental, she practiced for 

50 years until 1970. Dr. Garnett once recalled, 

"When I first started, patients came to the office 

and saw me. They asked for the dentist. 'I'm the 

dentist,' I said." 



145 



South End Physician Dr. John B. Hall, Sr., served as the secretary of 

the South End Medical Society (a group of white 
physicians) from its beginning in 1926 until 1952. 
During his career as a prominent South End phy- 
sician. Dr. Hall held posts as medical examiner 
for the Massachusetts Insurance Department and 
with the advisory council of the Massachusetts 
Public Health Department in the 1930s and '40s. 



First Nurses at City Hospital In 1929 two African-American women, Frances 

Harris and Letitia Campfield, became the first 
Blacks to be admitted to the School of Nursing at 
Boston City Hospital. 



Bay State Medical Association African-American doctors, dentists, and pharma- 
cists organized the Bay State Medical Association 
in 1930 to further their professional development 
and to provide charitable services to their com- 
munity. The membership included more than 50 
medical practitioners and was in existence until 
1942. 



Dr. John B. Hall, Jr. Dr. John B. Hall, Jr., became the first Black doc- 

tor accepted as an intern at Boston City Hospital 
in 1931. 



Distinguished Female Dentist Dr. Mary Crutchfield Wright was the only woman 

to pass the Massachusetts Civil Service examina- 
tion for dentists in state institutions in 1932. 



Renowned Chemist Dr. Henry A. Hill (1915-1979) was a distin- 

guished chemist locally and nationally from 1942 
until 1979. He was the first African-American to 
become Chairman of the Northeastern Section of 
the American Chemical Society and later became 
President of the American Chemical Society. In 
1961 he estabhshed his own organic chemistry re- 
search company, Riverside Research Laboratory in 
Cambridge. Previously he held several manage- 
ment positions in organic chemistry research at 
major research labs in the Boston area. 



Medical Director In 1949 Dr. Charles D. Bonner (1917-1990) be- 

came the first Black physician appointed to the 
staff" at Boston City Hospital. In 1968 he was ap- 
pointed Medical Director of Youville Hospital in 



146 



Cambridge. In 1979 he was elected president of Medical Director 

the Massachusetts Heart Association. Dr. Bonner 
gained national recognition for his methods of re- 
habilitating stroke victims. 



Harold B. Frye (1902-1989), a civil engineer with Engineer/Bridge Designer 

the Massachusetts Department of Public Works 
for over 40 years, was responsible for the design 
of many bridges throughout the state during his 
career. Born in Boston, he graduated in 1925 with 
a degree in engineering from Northeastern Univer- 
sity and in 1926 with a master's degree from the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During his 
career he served two terms as president of the 
Massachusetts State Engineers and Associates. 
Frye was a founding member of Chi Chapter of 
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity in Boston in 1924. He 
designed the Bragga Bridge in Fall River, Massa- 
chusetts. 




Harold Frye 



Dr. Charles D. Bonner 



147 



Microwave Associates Microwave Associates, Inc. (now called M/A- 

COM) was founded in 1950 in Boston by two Af- 
rican-American engineers, Louis W. Roberts and 
Richard M. Walker, and Vess Chigas (a Greek- 
American). In 1956 the company offered public 
stock and many of Boston's African-Americans 
invested. Microwave Associates became a multi- 
national company with sales over $500 million. 



Harvard Medical Graduate In 1951 Dr. Mildred Jefferson became the first Af- 
rican-American woman to graduate from Harvard 
Medical School. 



Distinguished Psychiatrist Dr. Alvin Poussaint, Associate Professor of Psy- 

chiatry at the Harvard Medical School, is a na- 
tionally recognized authority on the social and 
psychological dynamics related to African-Ameri- 
can life and culture in this country. For more than 
20 years his numerous articles on male-female re- 
lations, crime, teenage issues, substance abuse, 
and the Black family have appeared in leading 
magazines and journals. Since 1984 he has been a 
production consultant for the popular television 
program, the Bill Cosby Show. 



First Black Professor of Dr. Joseph L. Henry was the first African-Amer- 

Dentistry ican professor at the Harvard School of Dental 

Medicine with his appointment in 1974. He cre- 
ated the department of oral diagnosis and oral ra- 
diology which he still heads. In 1978 Dr. Henry 
became the first African-American to become an 
Associate Dean at the Dental School. 



Orthopaedic Surgeon-in-Chief In 1978 when Dr. Augustus A. White II became 

Orthopaedic Surgeon-in-Chief at Boston's Beth 
Israel Hospital, which is affiliated with Harvard 
Medical School, he became the first African- 
American to serve as chairman of a clinical de- 
partment in a major teaching hospital. He is the 
senior co-author of Clinical Biomechanics of the 
Spine, the first text of its kind on this topic. 



Dr. Kenneth C. Edelin was the first African- 
American physician to direct a major clinical de- 
partment at Boston City Hospital when he was 
named Director of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 



Three Firsts for 
Black Physician 



148 



1978, a position he held until 1989. Also, as 
Chairman and Professor of Obstetrics and Gyne- 
cology at Boston University School of Medicine, 
he was the first to head a clinical department at 
that institution. In October 1989 he was elected 
President of the Planned Parenthood Federation 
of America, another first for an African-Ameri- 
can. 



Three Firsts for 
Black Physician 



In 1979 chemical engineer James Porter (Ph.D.) 
founded his own firm. Energy and Environmental 
Engineering, Inc., in Cambridge, which became 
the first minority-owned firm in the nation to re- 
ceive U.S. Environmental Agency laboratory con- 
tracts. Before founding his own firm, he 
established the National Organization for the Ad- 
vancement of Black Chemists and Chemical En- 
gineers. 



Distinguished Chemical 
Engineer 



The first African-American to hold the position of 
Commissioner of PubHc Health in Massachusetts 
was Dr. Bailus Walker, appointed in 1984. He was 
followed by another African-American, Dr. Deb- 
orah Prothrow-Stith, Commissioner from 1987 to 
1989, the first woman to hold this position. 



Commissioners of 
Public Health 



Louis Roberts became the Director of Transpor- 
tation Systems Center at the U.S. Department of 
Transportation headquarters in Cambridge in 1985 
where he served until 1989. From 1967-1970 he 
was Chief of the Optics and Microwave Labora- 
tory of the Electronic Research Center for the Na- 
tional Aeronautics and Space Administration in 
Cambridge. Roberts holds 11 U.S. patents on 
electronic devices. 



Inventor of 
Electronic Devices 



Louis Roberts 




U.S. Secretary of Health, Dr. Louis W. Sullivan, formerly president of 

Education and Welfare Morehouse College of Medicine, was appointed by 

President George Bush in 1989 as Secretary of 
Health, Education and Welfare. Dr. Sullivan 
graduated from Boston University's School of 
Medicine and spent the early years of his career 
as a medical researcher at Massachusetts General 
Hospital and at Boston City Hospital where he 
was a research fellow until 1971. 



150 



Sports 



20th Century 



Boxer George "Little Chocolate" Dixon (1870- "Little Chocolate" Dixon 

1908) of Boston was the first Black to win both 
the featherweight and bantamweight champion- 
ships. 



Marshall W. "Major" Taylor of Worcester, Mas- Greatest Cyclist 

sachusetts, was the greatest cyclist in the country 

in the 1890s and early 1900s. He was World 

Professional Bicycle Champion between 1908 and 

1910. 



The wooden golf tee was invented by a Black Bos- Inventor of Golf Tee 

ton dentist, Dr. George Grant, who received his 
U.S. patent in 1899. He was also a member of the 
faculty at the Dental School of Harvard Univer- 
sity. 



William H. Lewis, an Ail-American football star Ail-American Football Star 

at Harvard, is credited with inventing the "roving 
center" defense strategy. He went on to a distin- 
guished legal and political career in Boston. 



Sam Langford of Boston and Cambridge had by "Finest Boxer 

his own count 650 boxing bouts between 1902 and to Wear Gloves" 

1926; 250 of his fights were officially recorded. 
Standing just 5 feet 7 inches, and weighing 165 
pounds — the size of a middleweight — Langford 
fought as a heavyweight and held the so-called 
Negro and Mexican heavyweight titles, in an era 
when promoters would not match a white fighter 
against a Black. Fighting the top Black heavy- 
weights, he lost a narrow 15-round decision to 
Jack Johnson in Chelsea in 1906. White journal- 
ists called him "next to Jack Dempsey, the finest 
boxer to ever put on a pair of gloves." 



151 



AFRICAN-AMERICAN INVENTORS 



G.F.GRANT 

GOLF TEE 



Patenied Dec i:. 




/d^-k^ ^^^^^^ 



Patent drawing of golf tee invented 
by Dr. George Grant 



Sam Langford (left), Joe Walcott 
(right). Photo taken in 1931; they 
fought in 1903. 




152 




Will "Cannonball" Jackman 



Leon L. Furr, Sr., was a 3-letter man in hockey Dazzling Player on Ice 

at Medford High School and captain of the Med- 
ford hockey team in 1917. Playing both center and 
forward positions, Furr was one of the most daz- 
zling and competent players on the ice in New 
England in the early 1900s. In 1977 he was named 
as an Honorary Member of the Boston Bruins 
professional hockey team. 



In 1919 Charles H. Jackson, a mechanic in Bos- Inventor of Diving Suit 

ton, invented a diving suit used to set a new 
world's record in 1920 for deep sea diving. John F. 
Turner, an internationally known diver, reached a 
depth of 360 feet while diving with Jackson's suit. 



Edward "Ned" Gourdin (1897-1966), as a Harvard World's Record Holder 

athlete, set a new world's record in the running 
broad jump — 25 feet, 3 inches — the first hu- 
man to leap beyond 25 feet. A graduate of Cam- 
bridge Latin High and Harvard Law School (1924) 
he was crowned National Amateur Athletic Union 
Junior 100-yard dash champion (1920) and Na- 
tional Pentathlon champion (1921 and 1922). In 
1952 he was appointed as a Special Justice of the 
Roxbury District Court, the third Black to serve 
on the state bench. In 1958 he was appointed to 
the Massachusetts Superior Court. 



Will "Cannonball" Jackman of Boston is a legend- 
ary baseball great of the old Colored Baseball 
League during the early 1900s. For seventeen years 



Legendary Baseball Great 

153 



Legendary Baseball Great 



Jackman pitched the baseball like his nickname. 
He played with the Philadelphia Colored Giants 
during the 1920s and 1930s and was a stellar at- 
traction on the semi-pro diamonds of New Eng- 
land. Later playing for the Boston Tigers, 
Jackman attracted people from all over New Eng- 
land to sandlot games in Cambridge, Quincy, 
Brockton, Lynn, and Boston (at the Carter Play- 
ground on Columbus Avenue). Only his "color" 
kept him out of the major leagues. 



Distinguished Athletes Matthew Bullock, a graduate of Everett High, and 

John Shelburne, a Boston English graduate, both 
became Ail-American football players at Dart- 
mouth College in the early 20th century. Bullock 
later returned to coach at Everett High, becoming 
the first African-American to serve as a head 
coach of a major northern white high school sports 
team. Shelburne became Youth Director of the 
Robert Gould Shaw House and Executive Director 
of its Breezy Meadows Camp in Holliston. Today 
in Roxbury the Shelburne Recreational Center is 
named in his honor. 



Female Olympic Star During the early 1930s Louise Stokes of Medford 

was among the finest female track stars in the 
country. She was a member of the U.S. Olympic 
Team in 1932 and won the Women's National 
A.A.U. 50-yard dash championship in Chicago in 
1933. 



Leading Tennis Player Titus Sparrow was a leading tennis player in Bos- 

ton and New England in the 1930s and 1940s. He 
was a tennis official of the old Boston Tennis Club 
and its off"spring, the Roxbury Sportsmen. He was 
the winner of numerous trophies, including the 
New England Gardner Clase Bowl, awarded an- 
nually by the New England Tennis Association for 
exceptional contributions to the game. Sparrow 
Park in Boston's South End is named for this ten- 
nis giant who taught the game to Black and white 
youngsters for over 30 years. 



Tennis Champion Isabel Bland of Medford was appointed Field Sec- 

retary of the American Tennis Association of New 
England in 1931. Mrs. Bland was a member of 
the Boston Tennis Club from early 1920s to early 



154 



1940s. She was the leading woman titlest in the 
Colored New England Amateur and Open Tour- 
nament. 



Tennis Champion 



Louis Montgomery was unanimously elected cap- Football Great 

tain of the Brockton High School football team in 
December of 1935. Montgomery, who went on to 
lead Boston College to a berth in the Cotton Bowl 
in 1941, was the first Black captain of the Brock- 
ton team since Ed Mallory in 1903. 



The Bay State Golf Association was founded in Bay State 

I 1938 by Black golfers from Medford and Boston. Golf Association 

In these early years they played at Sagamore 

Springs in Lynnfield, one of the few golf courses 

open to Blacks. Bay State's first annual tourna- 
i ment was held in 1940 at Ponkapoag Golf Club 

in Canton. This 52-year-old association continues 

each summer with its annual tournaments and 

fund-raising activities to promote the game among 

young people. 



Eddie Dugger of Medford was National Collegiate High Hurdles Champ 

Athletic Association high hurdles champion in 

1940. 




155 



First Black Celtics Star Chuck Cooper was the first Black player on the 

Boston Celtics basketball team, appearing with 
them in the 1940s. 



Boston Red Sox Scout Ralph "Stodie" Ward, formerly of Cambridge and 

a star third baseman for the old Boston Tigers, 
volunteered in the 1950s to work and scout for the 
Boston Red Sox to help them find Black players. 



Record-Setting In 1953 a one-mile relay team of Bobby Murphy, 

Relay Team Larry Smith, George Hubbard, and Charlie Jen- 

kins of Rindge Technical High in Cambridge set a 
national record of 3 minutes, 20.9 seconds, which 
stood unbeaten nationally for 10 years and for 25 
years as a state record. 



National ochcolbc/ 



20.9 .*c. /9J3 



National Schoolboy Record holders, 
Cambridge Rindge & Technical High, 
1953 




156 




Elijah "Pumpsie" Green 



K. C. Jones was a major figure in Boston's profes- Distinguished Player/Coach 
sional basketball history as both a player and a of Boston Celtics 

coach. As a guard who made defensive play his 
hallmark with the Boston Celtics from 1958 to 
1967, he had a career total of 2,904 assists and 
averaged 7.4 points per game. During his tenure 
as coach of the famed Boston Celtics from 1983 
to 1988, he led the team to two national champi- 
onships in 1983-84 and 1986-87. 



Elijah "Pumpsie" Green was the first Black base- First Black 

ball player for the Boston Red Sox, playing in the Red Sox Player 

infield from 1959-1962. 



/John Thomas of Cambridge, while an undergrad- Champion High Jumper 

uate at Boston University, was the first high 
jumper to clear the seven-foot height. In January 
1959 at the Milrose Gardens in Madison Square 
Garden he set a world record of 7 feet and Va 
inch. He went on to win a bronze medal for the 
high jump in the 1960 Olympic Games and a sil- 
ver medal in 1964. 



157 



John Thomas 



Sportsman's Tennis Club 



Since 1961 Sportsman's Tennis Club, through the 
vision and guidance of the club's founder, James 
A. Smith, has achieved local, regional and na- 
tional fame by developing and promoting junior 
tennis programs that have elevated young Black 
players to noteworthy competitive levels of tennis 
playing in the U.S. Tennis and American Tennis 
Association programs. 



Legendary Celtic 



Bill Russell was both player and coach of the leg- 
endary Boston Celtics basketball team for three 
seasons, from 1966 through 1969. In two of these 
seasons (1967-68 and 1968-69) he led the Cehics 
to the National Basketball Association national 
championship. As a CeUic from 1956 to 1969, he 
averaged 15.1 points per game in 963 regular sea- 
son games and was outstanding as a defensive 
center. 



158 



Marvelous Marvin Hagler 




Marvelous Marvin Hagler Boxer Marvelous Marvin Hagler of Brockton won 

the World Middleweight Championship Title in 
September 1980. Previously, in a fighting career 
that started in 1973, he had compiled a 49-2-2 re- 
cord. He successfully defended the middleweight 
title twelve times before losing to Sugar Ray Leon- 
ard in 1987. 



Memories of Great Black Fifty Sports Years Along Memory Lane: Afro- 

Athletes American Sports History — Hometown, Local and 

National by Mabray "Doc" Kountze of West Med- 
ford was published in 1981. Kountze's book 
chronicles hundreds of sports figures, teams, and 
events in greater Boston's African-American his- 
tory. 



160 



Elaine Weddington 




Peter C. B. Bynoe, a native of Boston, and Ber- First Owners of Pro Team 

tram Lee, a Boston businessman, became the first 

African-Americans to own a major professional 

sports franchise when they purchased the Denver 

Nuggets of the National Basketball Association in 

1989. 



In January 1990 Attorney Elaine Weddington was Red Sox Lawyer 

appointed assistant general manager for the Bos- and Manager 

ton Red Sox baseball team, a first in the nation 
for an African- American woman, but not a first 
for Weddington. In August 1988 she was also ap- 
pointed associate counsel for the team. 



161 



Epilogue 



On June 23, 1990 Winnie and Nelson Mandela came to Bos- 
ton. Nelson had recently been released from a South African 
prison after serving 27 years for his activism against apart- 
heid. With their visit the Mandelas added a bright, inspiring 
chapter to Boston's history. 

The Mandelas stand as modern-day heroes who illustrate 
poignantly the history of all Black people who struggle to 
make great contributions against tremendous odds in a world 
where they themselves are not truly free. 



163 



A 

Ab 
at)( 
Ac 
Ac 
I 

acl 
Ad 
Ad 
id 
AF 

Af: 
U 

Afi 

I 
I 

I 
f 

I 
} 

I 
; 

!'Ale 
All 
' All 

All! 

(! 

■■ k 
I 
( 
F 
F 

^ 

R 

S 



Index 



A 

Abiel Smith School. See Smith School, 
abohtionists, 37-40, 78, 93, 1 12, 123 
Academy of Musical Arts, 67 
Action for Boston Community Development, 

Inc. (ABCD), 27 
actors and acting, 62, 66-67, 69-70, 73 
Adams, John, 109 

Adelphic Union Library Association, 46 
Advocate, 113, 142 
AFRIC. See Project AFRIC. 
Africa, 15, 17, 70, 76, 116, 130 
L'Africaine Singers, 67 
African 

American Female Intelligence Society, 19 
American Master Artists in Residency 

Program, 74 
American Museums Association, 73 
Meeting House, 18 (illus.), 28, 37-38, 46, 53, 

129 

Meeting House in Boston, 58 

Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E.). See 
individual churches. 

Methodist Episcopal Review, 1 1 6 

Society for Mutual Aid and Charity, 17 
Afro-American Press and Its Editors, 113 
Agassiz School, 50 
"Aida," 64 
Albert, Henry, 125 
alcohol. See temperance. 
Alexander, Joyce London, 109 
All Saints Lutheran Church, 54 
Allen, Macon B., 104 
Allston 

^' J. Henderson, 94 

(MA), 27 
American 

Baptist Convention, 134 

Chemical Society, 146 

Federation of Labor, 78 

Film and Video Festival Award, 59 

Nurses' Association, 139 

Revolution, 17, 46, 121-122, 129, 138 

Society of Planning Officials, 30 



Tennis Association, 154 
Ancrum School of Music, 66 
Anderson, T. J., 74 (illus.) 
Andover Newton Theological School, 137 
Andrews, Madeline D., 97 
Anti-Slavery, 34-35 (illus.), 38, 63 

Convention of American Women, 38 

Herald, 112 
Apex Construction, 90 
Appeal, 37 
architecture, 88 
Aristo Club, 51 (illus.) 
Arlington (MA), 56 
Armstead, Ron, 44 
Armstrong, 

Gary, 118 

Hemingway Foundation, 26 

William O., 94 
Arnette, Mae, 67 
art and artists, 31, 62-63, 67, 73 
Asian 

community, 45, 74 

Political Caucus, 102 
Associated 

Day Care Services, 110 

Master Barbers of Massachusetts, 83 
Aswalos House, 29 
Atkins, Thomas, 98 (illus.) 
Atlanta (GA), 74 
Attucks, Crispus, 121-122 (illus.) 
auto sales, 91 

B 

Bahamas, 15 

Bailey, Parker, 49 (illus.) 

Baldwin, 

Louis E., 93 

Maria L., 50-51 (illus.) 
Ball Street, 128 
Baltimore (MD), 54, 69 

Afro-American, 116 
Bank of Boston, 110 
banking, 79, 89-90 
Banks, 



Ellen, 75 

Judge Richard, 56 

Lawrence, 96 

Walden, 94 
Bannister, Edward M., 62 
Baptist Church, 

African, 19, 129 

First African, 18 

Twelfth, 19, 48, 63, 129, 136 

See also individual churches, 
barbershops, 17, 79, 83, 93 
Barbour, John, 75 
baritone. See music. 
Barjonah, Isaiah, 122 
Barron Chevrolet. 91 
"Bar's Fight, The," (poem), 61 
baseball, 152-154, 156-158, 161 
basketball, 155 (illus.)-157, 159, 161 
Batson, Ruth M., 28, 56 (illus.), 58, 119 
Bay State 

Banner, 58, 118 

Golf Association, 155 

Medical Association, 146 
Beacon 

Hill, 17-20, 28, 46, 49-50, 53, 76, 92-94, 129, 
135 

Street, 125 
Beatty, Roger, 75 
Beaufort, S.C., 125 
Belgrave, Cynthia, 85 
Benjamin, 

Asher, 76 

Edgar P., 106 
Benn, 

"Banner," 86 

Lester, 86 
Berlin Jazz Festival, 70 
Beth Israel Hospital, 148 
bicycles and bicyclists, 151 
Bill Cosby Show (TV), 148 
"Birth of a Nation," 41 
Black 

Abolitionists, 53 

Corporate Presidents of New England, Inc., • 
90 

Educators Alliance of Massachusetts 

(BEAM), 55 
Enterprise, 90 

Entertainment Network, 118 

Heritage Trail, 52 (illus. )-53 

Muslims, 133 

"Nativity," 70, 73 

Patrolmen's Association, 44 

Political Task Force, 102 

United Front, 29 
"Blackbirds," 69 
Blackman, Vernon F, 70 



Blackside, Inc., 59 

Bland, Isabel, 154-155 

B.M.L. Associates, 90 

boarding/lodge keepers, 79 

Boardman, Reginald, 65 (illus.) 

Bob the Chef's Restaurant, 87 

Body of Liberties ( 1 64 1 ) , 34 

Boiling, 

Bruce C, 31, 100 (illus. )-101 
Royal, Jr., 100 (illus. )-101 
Royal, Sr., 99-100 (illus. )-101 , 127 

Bonner, Dr. Charles D., 146-147 (illus.) 

Boone, John, 99 

bootblack stands, 79 

Boston 

Afro-American Artists, Inc. (BAAA), 72 
Association of Negro Business and 

Professional Women's Clubs, 88 
Athenaeum, 68 
Bank of Commerce, 90 
Bar Association, 109 
Beacon, 113 
Board of 

Appeals, 98 

Overseers of Public Welfare, 97 
Bruins, 153 
Cadet Band, 62 
Celtics, 156-158 
Chronicle, 81 (illus.), 116 
City 

Council, 32, 92, 94, 96, 98, 101-102 

Hall, 23, 100-101, 146, 148, 150 

Hospital, 41 

Treasurer, 102 
Civil Defense, Assistant Director of, 97 
College, 155 

Colored Waiters Alliance, 78 
Committee to Advance the Cause of the 
Negro, 41 

Common, 34-35 (illus.), 42-43 (illus.), 121 

Council, 93 
Co-Operator, 113 

Corporation Council, Assistant, 107 

Courant, 113, 116 

Daily Globe, 102, 113, 118 

English High School, 53, 117, 128, 134, 154 

Equal Rights League, 40 

Evening Record, 113 

Fair Housing Commission, 44 

Foundation, 28, 31 

Globe Foundation, 118 

Guardian, 115-116 

Harbor, 15 

Health Commissioner, Assistant, 95 
Herald, 90, 113, 117 
Housing Authority, 3 1 , 45 
Jobs 



166 



and Community Services, Office of, 100 
Coalition, 29 

for Boston Residents Ordinance, 29 
Juvenile Court, 108 
Latin School, 25, 49, 64 
Leader, 1 1 3 
Licensing Board, 97 
Literary and Historical Society, 20 
Lying-in Hospital, 144 
Massacre, 121-122 
Mayor, 98, 100-101 

Deputy, 100 
Model Cities, 98 
Municipal Court, 108-109 
Museum of Fine Arts, 68 
Negro 

Artists Association, 72 

Arts Club, 64 
Observer, 1 1 3 
Opera House, 73 
Police 

Department, 22 

Strike, 22 
Pops Orchestra, 69 
Public Library, 50, 59-60, 68, 98, 110 
Red Sox, 156-157, 161 
Redevelopment Authority, 31, 100 
"Riot," 135 

Safe Neighborhoods Program, 100 
School Committee, 44, 46, 50, 54, 57-58, 60, 
92, 99 

schools, 57, 59. See also individual schools. 
Sealer of Weights and Measures, Deputy, 94 
Stage Society, 67 
Superintendent of 

Schools, 59 

Schools, Assistant, 57 
Symphony 

Hall, 65 

Orchestra, 72-73 
Tax Collector's Office, 95 
Tennis Club, 154 
Tigers, 154, 156 
Transcript, 116 
Traveler, 1 1 7 

University, 28, 56, 58, 1 17, 133, 157 
Law School, 106 
Medical School, 142, 149-150 
School of Engineering, 79 
School of Social Work, 58 
School of Theology, 42 
Boston's 
"Black History," 58 
NAACP History, 58 
Bowdoin School, 49 
Bowman, Thomas, 125 
boxing, 151, 160 



Boyd, Jim, 118 
Boylston 

Dr. Zabdiel, 138 

Street, 77 
Brackett, Edmund, 63 
Bradford, Gov. Robert, 108 
Brady, William, 125 
Bragga Bridge, 147 
Braintree (MA), 56 
Braithwaite, William Stanley, 64 
bread crumb and dough machine, 142 
Breezy Meadows Camp, 25, 154 
Brighton (MA), 27 

High School, 50 
Broadnax, Rebecca Lee, 67 
Broadway, 68, 70 
Brockton (MA), 154, 160 

High School, 155 
Brooke, Edward W, 97-98 (illus.), 108 
Brookline (MA), 55, 65, 122 
Brown, 

Abraham, 125 

E. E., 95 

Ronald H., 103 

Stanley E., 67, 70 

Thomas, 119 

William Wells, 62 
Bryant, W. W, 94 
Buchanan, James, 125 
Buckingham Palace, 65 
Bucks of America, 122 
Budd, Wayne A., 109 (illus.) 
Bullock, Matthew, 108 (illus.), 154 
Bunker Hill, Battle of, 122 
Bunte, Doris, 31, 99 (illus.) 
Burgess, Rev. John M., 133 
Burghardt, Henry E, 125 
Burkett, Elisha, 125 
Burnett, Calvin, 72, 74-75 
Burnham 

Hines and Dilday, 110 (illus. )-l 11 

Margaret, 109-110 (illus.) 
Bush, 

Andrew, 78 

President George, 109 
busing, 55-56, 100 
Bynoe, 

John, 26 (illus.) 

Peter C. B., 161 

Victor, 53 

C 

Calloway, Cab, 67 

Cambridge (MA), 50, 67, 70, 78, 80, 82, 99, 
121-122, 142, 146-147, 149, 151, 154, 156-157 
Alderman, 95 
City Council, 93, 99 



167 



Common Council, 49 

Highway Commission, 95 

Latin Higii School, 153 

Street, 17 
Campfield, Letitia, 146 
Canada, 40, 121 
Cantemus Club, 67 
Canton (MA), 155 
Carlton Hotel, 80 
"Carmen," 64 
Carney, Sgt. William, 125 
Carroll, Jacqueline, 49 
Carter, 

Dr. Vernon, 54 (illus.) 

Playground, 126, 154 

President Jimmy, 109 

Robert H., 140-141 (illus.) 

Sgt. William E., 126 
Cass, Melnea, 22-23 (illus.) 
catering, 78-79 
"Cavalleria Rusticana," 64 
CBS News, 116 

Center for Community Action, 28-29 
Champain, Jason, 125 
Chandler, Dana, 74-75 
Chappelle, Julius C, 94 
Charles Street, 17, 135 

African Methodist Episcopal Church, 20, 135 
(illus.) 

Meeting House, 53 
Charleston, S.C., 125, 128 
Charlestown (MA), 45 

District Court, 106 
Chase, Richard, 118 
Chelsea (MA), 151 
chemist, 146 

Cheyney, Captain Thomas, 121 
Chicago, 19, 31, 154 
Chigas, Vess, 148 
China, 116 
Chittick School, 56 
"Chocolate Revue," 69 
Christ, 73 

Christian Science Monitor, 118 
Christmas Message in Pictures, 68 
churches. See individual churches and clergy, 
cigar manufacture, 79 
civil 

defense, 97 

rights, 40, 59, 89, 105, 111, 115, 135 

War, 19, 40, 63, 77-78, 93, 112, 123, 125-126 
Claremont Park, 67 
Clark, 

Andrew, 125 

J. Milton, 93 

James, 19 

Lewis, 125 

Rebecca, 19 



clergy, 19, 24, 31-32, 34, 48, 54, 62, 129-137 
clerks, department store, 85 
Cleveland, President Grover, 105 
Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine, 148 
Clot el: or The President's Daughter, 62 
clothes cleaning business, 77 
clothiers, 76, 78. See also tailors. 
Coard, Robert M., 27 (illus.) 
Coburn, John R, 76 

Coburn's Gaming House, 53, 76-77 (illus.) 
Coca, Imogene, 69 
Cofield, Juan M., 90 
Coleman, 

Ralf, 66 (illus.) 

William T., Ill 
Colored 

American Magazine, 63, 113-114 (illus. )-l 15 
Baseball League, 153-154 
Cooperative Publishing Company, 115 
New England Amateur and Open 

Tournament, 155 
Patriots of the American Revolution, 113 
Columbus Avenue, 21-22, 43, 57, 67, 85, 87, 
135, 154 

A.M.E. Church, 135 
Commonwealth v. Jennison, 35 
Community Benefits Fund, 45 
computers and computer software, 90 
concerts and concert artists, 62-63, 65, 73 
Congregational Publishing Society, 63 
Congressional Medal of Honor, 125 
construction business, 86, 89-90 
Contine, Fannie R., 20 
Contractors Association of Boston (CAB), 44, 

100 
Cook, 

Angela Paige, 58 

Joseph, 58 
Cooper, 

Chuck, 155 (illus.)-156 

Edward L., 24 

Hattie B., Community Center, 22 

Ralph, 44 
Copley Square High School, 60 
Corea, Chick, 72 
Cottagers, 32 
cotton, 15 

Courant. See Boston Courant. 

Courtney, Dr. Samuel E., 48 

Cox, Dr. W. Alexander, 142 

Craig, Henry, 125 

Crawford, David E., 79 

crime and crime prevention, 28 

Cm/5 (magazine), 116 

Crite, Allan Rohan, 66 (illus. )-68, 75 

Crosby, Estella V., 87 

Crosson, Wilhelmina, 50-51 



168 



Cruz, 

John B., Jr., 86 (illus.) 

John B., Sr., 86 (illus.) 
Cuffe, Paul, 76, 92 
Cuffee (ex-slave), 121 
Cummington Street, 79 
Curley, Mayor James Michael, 23 
Curry, Josephus, 125 

D 

dance, 67, 69-70 
Darks, Edward, 125 
Dartmoor Prison, 123 
Dartmouth 

College, 60, 154 

Street, 22 
Davenport, Mildred, 69-70 
David 

A. Ellis School, 103 

L. Ramsay Park, 128 
Davis 

Funeral Home, 83 

Helen Y, 27 

Sammy, Jr., 70 
Dawson, Alan, 86 
day-care service, 21, 25, 29, 110 
Dearborn School District, 56 
Declaration of Rights, 35 
decorations and medals, 125, 127-128 
DeGrasse, J. V., 139 
Delany, Martin R., 139 
Demarest, James Gloucester, 62 
Democratic 

National Convention, 95, 103 

Party, 96, 102 
Dempsey, Jack, 151 
Dennis, Henry, 125 

dentists and dentistry, 106, 142, 145-146, 148, 
151 

Denver Nuggets, 161 
Depression, 22, 105 
Derr, Milton, 75 
Desire (ship), 15 
Detroit, 19 

Digital Equipment Corporation, 89 

Dilday, Judith, 110-111 

Dimock Community Health Center, 139 

discrimination, 37, 42, 44, 113, 129, 139 

diving, deep sea, 153 

Dixon, George "Little Chocolate," 151 

Dominican Repubhc, 105 

Dorchester (MA), 15, 27, 29, 128 

Dorsey, Rev. John H., 131 

Douglass 

Frederick, 38 (illus.)-39, 54 

Plaza, 85 

Square Pharmacy, 83 



dressmaking, 77. See also tailors, 
drinking. See temperance. 
Drop-A-Dime Program, 31 
drugs, 31 

Drury, Theodore, 64 
dry goods business, 87 
DuBois, William E. B., 41 
Dudley Branch Library, 60, 110 
Dugger, Edward, 126, 155 
Dukakis, Gov. Michael S., 59 
Dunbar Barbers, 83 

Dupont-Columbia Gold Boston Award, 59 
Dyett, Lovell, 118 

E 

Earle, Richard, 20 
East 

Boston, 45 

Springfield Street, 143 
Ebenezer Baptist Church, 131 
Edelin, Dr. Kenneth C, 148-149 
Edgerly, William, 125 
Edison 

Pioneers, 141 

Thomas A., 141 
education, 18-19, 25-29, 31, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48- 

51, 53-54, 58. See also schools. 
Educational Counseling Committee (NAACP), 

53 

Eight Black American Inventors, 58 
Elam, 

Clarence Richard, 97 

Harry J., 27, 108 (illus.) 
elderly, 22, 24, 30, 106 
electric light bulb, 141 
elevator operators, 85 
Elhngton, Duke, 133 
Elma Lewis School of Fine Arts, 70, 73 
Emancipation Proclamation, 130 
Emancipator and Free American, 112 
Emmy Award, 59 

employment. Black, 21-22, 26-29, 37, 96 
Energy and Environmental Engineering, Inc., 
149 

engineering, 147-149 

England, king and queen of, 65 

Episcopal Church, 131, 133, 136. See also 

individual churches. 
Estelle's (restaurant), 81, 85 
Eure, Dexter D., Sr., 118 
Eureka Co-operative Bank, 79-80 (illus.) 
Europe, 70 
Evans, Albert, 125 
Everett High School, 154 
Everson, William S., 125 
"Evils of Intemperance," 63 
Eyes on the Prize, 59 



169 



F 

Fairbairn, Monica, 28 

Faith, Culture and Leadership, 58 

Falana, Lola, 67 

Fall River (MA), 147 

Faneuil Hall, 129 

Farrakhan, Minister Louis, 134 (illus.) 
"Faust," 64 

Federal Reserve Bank, 91 
Fern, Sylvia, 20 
Ferriabough, Joyce, 31, 102 
Fields, Carmen, 118 

Fifty Sports Years along Memory Lane, 160 

55th Massachusetts Regiment, 125 

54th Massachusetts Regiment, 53, 123 (illus. )- 

124 (illus. )-125 
Filene's (department store), 85 
firefighters, 44 
First National Store, 24 
Fitzgerald, Mayor, 95 
"Five on Five" (TV), 58 
flags, 77, 100, 125 
Fletcher, Leo, 89 
"Flying Colors," 69 
Flynn, Mayor Raymond L., 100-102 
food service, 24 
football, 151, 154-155 
Forbes, George W., 50, 116 (illus.) 
Ford 

Foundation, 28 

Hall Forum, 67 

President Gerald, 111 

Samuel, 125 
"Forever Free," (marble statue), 63 
Forster, Estelle A., 66 
Forsyth, George, 117 
Fort Wagner, 125 
Forty Best Songs, 50 
Foster, 

Cyrus, 46-47 (illus. )-48 

Richard M., 125 
Framingham (MA), 65, 121-122, 142 
France, 126 

Franklin, Benjamin, 23 

Fredkin, Joyce, 119 

Free Church. See Tremont Temple. 

Freedom 

Electronics and Engineering, 89 

House, 26, 60 
Freemasonry, 16 
French and Indian War, 121 
Frolic (dance hall), 70 
Frye, Harold B., 147 (illus.) 
Fuller, 

Dr. Solomon Carter, 142 (illus.) 



Meta Warwick, 65 
Furr, Leon L., Sr., 153 

G 

Gage, Gov. General Thomas, 35 
Gaines, Berthe M., 59 
Gaither, Edmund B., 73 
gambling, 76 
gaming. See gambling. 
Gamrell, Charles S., 125 
Gardner, 

Anna Bobbitt, 67 

Cato, 18 

Eliza Ann, 77 (illus.) 
Garland, 

Dr. Cornelius, 143-144 (illus.) 

Judy, 70 
Garner, Errol, 85-86 
Garnett, Dr. Jessie G., 145 (illus.) 
Garrison, 

Juvenile, 19 

Juvenile, Choir, 19 

William Lloyd, 37, 112 (illus.) 
Garrity, Judge W. Arthur, Jr., 44 
Gaskins, Nelson, 94 
George Middleton House, 53 
Georgia, 129 

gerrymandering. See redistricting. 

Gilchrist's (department store), 85 

Gillespie, Dizzy, 85 

Gillette Company, 89 

Gilmore Band, 62 

Gittens, Donna Latson, 120 

Golf, 155 

tee, 151-152 (illus.) 
Goode, 

Dunson & Henry, 80 

Jesse, 80 

Trust Company, 80 
Goodnight, Paul, 75 
Goodwin, Prince, 17 
Gourdin, 

Edward "Ned," 153 

Edward O., 127 (illus.) 
Graham, Sandra, 99 
Grand Army of the Republic, 126 
Grant, Dr. George, 151-152 
Gray, 

John, 84 

Percy, 84 
Great Barrington (MA), 41 
Greater Boston Negro Business and Trade 

Association, 82 
Greeks, 148 
Green, 

Elijah "Pumpsie," 157 (illus.) 
Lewis C, 125 



170 



Greener, Richard Theodore, 48 
Griffith, RolHns, 55, 57 (illus.) 
Grimes, 

Calvin M., Jr., 84 (illus.) 

Calvin, Sr., 84 (illus.) 

Oil Company, 84, 90 

Rev. Leonard, 19, 129 
Grimke, Archibald H., 105 
"griot," (storyteller), 41 
grocery business, 80 
Grove Hall, 16 
Guardian, 41, 95, 131 
Guilford, James, 75, 83 (illus.) 
guitar. See music. 

Gulliver, Dr. Adelaide Cromwell, 57 
Guscott, Kenneth, 30 
gymnasium, 77 

H 

Hagler, Marvelous Marvin, 160 (illus.) 

hairdresser, 82 

Hall, 

Charles H., 94 

Dr. John B., Jr., 146 

Dr. John B., Sr., 146 

Primus, 46 

Prince, 16 (illus.) 
Hallowell, Colonel, 125 
Hampton, Henry, 28, 59 (illus.), 119 
Hancock School, 50 
Harriet Tubman House, 20-21, 85, 88 
Harris, 

Charles E., 94 

Frances, 146 

Gilbert C, 79 

Maceo, 23 

Rev. Barbara C, 136 (illus.) 
Harrison, 

William, 116 

William Henry, II, 125 
' Hart, Tanya, 118 
Harvard 

College, 25, 48-49, 60, 73, 104, 151, 153 
Law Review, 1 1 1 
Law School, 49, 94, 105-106, 153 
Medical School, 139, 144-145, 148 
School of Dental Medicine, 148, 151 

j University, 41, 49, 111, 116 

I Hastie, William, 111 
hat maker, 76 

Hattie B. Cooper Community Center, 22 
j Haughton, Alfred, 116 
!i Hawkins, Coleman, 86 
i Hayden, 
Harriet, 40 

Lewis, 40 (illus.), 93, 121 
Lewis, House, 53 



Robert C, 57-58, 140 
Hayes, Roland, 65 (illus.) 
Haynes, 

Rev. Michael E., 136-137 (illus.) 

Roy, 72 (illus.) 
Head Start Program, 25 
health and health care, 19, 21, 83 
Healy, Bishop James A., 129 
Henderson, James, 69 (illus.) 
Hendricks, Caesar, 104 
Henry 

Dr. Joseph L., 148 

Owens Movers, 82 
Henson, Julia O., 20 
Hester, Beulah H., 97 
Hi Hat (club), 68, 85 
high-tech industries, 89 
Highland Park, 30, 58 
HI I Corporation, 90 
Hill, 

Dr. Henry A., 146 

Gerry, 55 
Hines, 

Edward, 125 

Geraldine, 110 

Gregory, 70 
Hinton, 

Dr. William A., 145 (illus.) 

Test, 145 

Hispanic community, 28, 44-45, 57, 74, 102 
History of 
METCO, 58 

the Negro Race in America, 48 

Twelfth Baptist Church, 48 
Histrionic Club, 62 
hockey, 153 

Hogan, Benjamin, 125 

HolHston (MA), 25, 154 

Holloway, Charles M., 125 

Holt, Barbara, 75 

Holy Cross, Cathedral of, 131 

Holyoke Street, 20 

Home for Aged Colored Women, 19 

Homer, Ronald A., 90 

Honey Hill (SC), Battle of, 125 

Honeywell Information Systems, 89 

Hopkins, Pauline, 63 

Housewives League, 87 

housing, 26, 28-30, 32, 37, 42, 44-45, 96 

Houston, 

Charles, 111 

Judge Julian, 106, 110 
Howard 

Athenaeum, 39 

Peter, 17 

University, 59, 106 
Howe, Cato, 17 



171 



Hoyt, Stewart E., 95 
The Hub, 105 
Hubbard, 

George, 156 (illus.) 

Mayor, 95 

HUD. See U.S. Office of Housing and Urban 

Development. 
Hughes, Langston, 73 
Hurley, Arnold, 75 
Hyde Park, 27 



immigration, 107 

"In the Jungle of the Cities," 70 

Indians, American, 34, 74, 92 

In Put Out Put Computer Service, 90 

Intervale Street, 133 

inventors and inventions, 138, 141-142, 149, 

151, 153 
Iowa, 126 

Irish immigrants, 129, 142 
Irving Street, 76 
I slew, Bert, 113 
Itahans, 50, 82, 142 
Italy, 127 

J 

Jackman, Will "Cannonball," 153 (illus. )-154 
Jackson, 

Barbara, 55 

Charles H., 153 

Clarence Noel, 83 

Ellen Swepson, 55 (illus.) 

George E., 125 

Gretchen, 1 17 

Herbert Loring, 94, 96 

Jesse, 102 

Stephen, 76 
Jamaica Plain, 27 
janitorial services, 90 
jazz, 31, 68, 72, 85-86, 133 
J. B. Johnson Funeral Home, 83 
Jefferson, Dr. Mildred, 148 
Jenifer, Dr. Franklyn, 59 
Jenkins, Charlie, 156 (illus.) 
Jesse Goode Associates, 80 
Jewish Daily Forward, 50 
Jews, 50, 142 

Jimmy Guilford's Men's Hair Salon, 83 
J. J. S. Services, 90 

John B. Cruz Construction Company, 86 

John J. Smith House, 53 

Johnson, 

Jack, 151 

James R, 125 

J. B., Funeral Home, 83 

Jestina A., 20 



John H., 125 

Larry, 75 
Jones, 

Anna Faith, 31 

Clarence "Jeep," 100 

Hubert "Hubie," 58 

K. C, 157 

Lois Mailou, 75 
Jones-Henderson, Napoleon, 75 
Joplin, Scott, 74 
Jordan, Robert, 118 
Josselyn, John, 15 
Joy Street, 17 

Baptist Church, 129 
Justice George Lewis Ruffin Society, 106 
Juvenile Garrison Independent Society, 18 

K 

Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, 147 

Kelly, Madeline Kountze Dugger, 27 

Ken, Bostian, 15 

Kennedy, Harriet, 75 

Kiernan, Dr. Owen B., 54 

King, 

Dr. Martin Luther, Jr., 42 (illus. )-43 (illus.) 

Henry, 125 

Joyce, 101 

Lloyd, 30 

Mel, 101 (illus.) 

Street, 121 
Klugh, Rev. Davis S., 132 
Knights of Pythias, 21 
Kountze, Mabray "Doc," 160 
Krunkleton, Cyrus, 125 
Ku Klux Klan, 41 
Kuumba Singers, 73 

L 

labor and labor unions, 78 (illus.), 89 

L'Africaine Singers, 67 

La Alianza, 28 

Laing, Daniel, 139 

Landsmark, Theodore, 100 

Lane, W. C, 93 

Langford, Sam, 151-152 (illus.) 

Langhart, Janet, 1 19 

Latimer, Lewis, 141 (illus.) 

laundries, 79, 126 

Laviscount, Rev. Samuel L., 24 (illus.) 

law, lawsuits, and lawyers, 44, 48, 92, 95, 104- 

111, 126, 144, 151, 161 
League of 

Women for Community Service, 21 

Women Voters, 87 
Leattimore, Andrew B., 95 
Lee, 

Bertram, 119, 161 



172 



David, 88 (illus.) 
Joseph, 142 
Rebecca, 139 
Lena Park 
Associates, 29 

Community Development Corporation, 29 
Lenox Street, 67 
Leonard, Sugar Ray, 160 
LeSuerer, Florence, 42 (illus.) 
Lew, Barzillai, 121 
Lewis, 

Augustus, 125 

Edmonia, 63 

Elma, 31, 70-71 (illus.) 

J. H., 78 

Lillian, 113 

Oscar, 126 

Sabby, 68 (illus.) 

William H., 95, 106-107 (illus.), 151 
Lewis Hayden House, 53 
Lexington (MA), 55 

Battle of, 122 
The Liberator, 36 (illus. )-37 (illus.), 112-113 
Liberty Guards, 123 
libraries and librarians, 50, 59-60 
Lightfoot, Sara Lawrence, 31 
Lincoln 

Abraham, 130 

and the Negro, 53 

(MA), 55-56 

Pharmacy, 96 
linkage plan, 31, 102 

literature and literary societies, 19-20, 34, 37, 

64-65 
Little, 

Malcolm. See Malcolm X. 

Theater Players, 70 
livery business, 79 
Living Is Easy (novel), 64 
Locard, Lewis J., 125 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 105 
Lomax, Leon G., 82 
Long Bay Management, 30 
"Love to Love You, Baby," 74 
Lower Roxbury Community Development 

Corporation, 30 
Lowther, George W., 94 
[! Lucas, Thomas E., 80 
j Lynn (MA), 151, 154 
Lynnfield (MA), 155 

|M 

I M Street High School (Washington, D.C.), 49 
M/A-COM. See Microwave Associates, Inc. 
Mac Arthur, John D. and Catherine T, 

Foundation, 31 
Madison Square Garden, 157 



Mahoney, Mary Eliza, 139-140 (illus.) 
mail order business, 79 
Maine, 104, 107, 129 
Malcolm X, 132-133 
Maiden (MA), 94 

City Council, 96 
Mallory, Ed, 155 
manufacturers, 90 
Maple Street, 29 
Marblehead (MA), 15 
Martha's Vineyard Island, 32-33 (illus.), 65 
Martin, 

Barron, 119 

Rev. John Sella, 129 
Mashow, John, 138 
Masonry. See Freemasonry, 
masons, brick, 84 
Massachusetts 

Anti-Slavery Society, 39 

Attorney General, 108 

Attorney General, Assistant, 108 

Attorney General, Special Assistant to, 97-98 

Avenue, 21-22, 26, 82, 85-87 

Bankers Association, 32 

Bar, 104, 107 

Bar Association, 109 

Bay Colony, 34 

Bay Transportation Authority, 100 
Board of Education, 54, 56 
Board of Veterinary Physicians, 143 
Chancellor of Higher Education, 59 
Chancery, 79 

Civil Service Examination, 146 
College of Pharmacy, 83 
Commission 

Against Discrimination, 69 

of Community Affairs, 26 

of Public Health, 149 
Communities and Development, Executive 

Office of, 97 
Council on the Arts and Humanities, 74 
Department of 

Commerce, 26 

Correction, 99 

Public Works, 147 

Social Services, 1 10 
Fair Housing Commission, 136 
General Colored Association, 37-38 
General Court, 93. See also Massachusetts 

legislature. 
General Hospital, 150 
Governor's Council, 95, 97 
Heart Association, 147 
House of Representatives, 39, 93-94, 96, 99, 

101-102 
Housing Board, 97 
Institute of Technology, 60, 101, 147 



173 



Insurance Department, 146 

Judicial Court, 127 

Latino Democratic Committee, 102 

Legislative Black Caucus, 99 

legislature, 35, 40, 42, 46, 48, 78, 92, 94-95, 

113, 121 
Library Commissioner, 57 
Medical Association, 139 
Mother of the Year, 27 
National Guard, 126-127 
Negro Educators Association, 55 
Parole Board, 26, 96, 108, 136 
Public Health Department, 146 
Racial Imbalance Act, 42, 55 
Secretary of 

Education, 98 

Transportation, 91 
Senate, 78, 99, 101 
State 

Auditor, 102 

Engineers and Associates, 147 

House, 42, 125 

Militia, 95, 121, 123 
Superior Court, 108, 110, 153 
Massasoit Guards, 123 
Mather, Cotton, 138 
Mattapan, 27, 29 
Matzeliger, Jan E., 141 
Maverick, Samuel, 15 
McClain, Joshua, 22 
McGhee, Andy, 86 
McGuire, Jean, 55 
McJohnson, Robert, 125 
Medford (MA), 27, 153-155 

School Committee, 97 
Melbourne Hotel, 80 
Melnea Cass Boulevard, 22, 128 
Merced, Nelson, 102 
METCO, 55-56 

Metropolitan Council for Educational 

Opportunities. See METCO. 
Microwave Associates, 148 
Miller, 

John, 125 

Melvin, 118-119 (illus.) 
Minutemen, 122 
Mitchell, 

Charles L., 94, 141 

Donnat, 118 

Gaunzetta, 53 

J. Marcus, 28, 53, 72, 75 

Lucy M., 25 (illus.) 

Nellie Brown, 141 

Oscar Lieber, 131 
Montgomery, Louis, 155 
Montier, 22 
Moorhead, 



Rev. John, 62 

Scipio, 62 
Morehouse College of Medicine, 150 
Morgan, 

Bob "The Chef," 87 (illus.) 

Clement G., 49, 94-95 

State College, 54 
Morris, 

Frank, 97 (illus.) 

Robert, 104-105 (illus.) 

William H., 125 
Morrison, George, 30 
Moses, Robert, 31 
Mothers for Adequate Welfare, 29 
moving/rigging business, 82 
Muhammad, 

Elijah, 134 

Minister Don, 134 
Muriel Snowden International High School, 60 
Murphy, Bobby, 156 (illus.) 
Museum of 

Afro-American History, 28, 53 

Fine Arts, Boston, 73 

Negro History, See Museum of Afro- 
American History, 
music and musicians, 62, 64-66, 69, 12-14, 85- 

86 

Music and Some Highly Musical People, 63 
Myrtle Baptist Church, 131 



NAACP, 23-26, 32, 40-42, 44-45, 50, 53, 64, 

105, 116 
Nantucket (MA), 39 
Nash, Kendell, 117 
Natick (MA), 128 
Nation of Islam, 134 

Temple, 133 
National 

Aeronautics and Space Administration, 149 
Association for the Advancement of Colored 

People. See NAACP 
Association of Colored 

Graduate Nurses, 140 

Women, 20 
Basketball Association, 158, 161 
Business League, 87 
Caucus and Center on Black Aged, 24 
Center of Afro-American Artists, 70 

Museum of, 73 
Collegiate Athletic Association, 155 
Federation of Afro-American Women, 20 
Medical Association, 142 
Negro Business League, 79 
Organization for the Advancement of Black 

Chemists, 149 
Park Service, 53 



174 



Republican Convention, 79 

Urban League, 21 
NBC Radio, 68 
Negro 

Federal Theatre of Massachusetts, 66 

History Week, 51 

in the American Revolution, 53 

in the Making of America, 53 

Repertory Theatre, 66 
Nell, William C, 40, 48, 62, 92 (illus.), 113, 

121 
Nelson, 

Charles E., 125 

David S., 109 
New Bedford (MA), 76, 78, 104, 125, 138, 140 

City Council, 104 
New Dudley Street, 22, 57 
New England 

Anti-Slavery Society, 38 

Conservatory of Music, 63, 66 

Hospital for Women and Children, 139 

Telephone, 89 

Temperance Society of People of Color, 19 

Tennis Association, 154 
New Hampshire, 107 
New York, 19, 64, 68-69 

newspapers and newspaper publishing, 79. See 

also newspapers by name. 
Newton (MA), 55, 131, 137 

Board of Aldermen, 98 

Theological Seminary, 48 
Nieman Fellow, 1 16 
Nine Black American Doctors, 58 
Noddles Island, 15 
North 

Dorchester, 22, 29 

End, 50 

Northeastern University, 53, 73-74, 106, 147 
nurses and nursing, 41, 126, 139, 143-144 
(illus.), 146 

O 

Oak Bluffs (MA), 32 

Obama, Barack H., Ill 

O'Bryant, John D., 55, 57 (illus.)-58 

obstetrics and gynecology, 144, 148 

Odd Fellows, 19, 77 

oil business, 84 

Old Howard (dance hall), 70 

Onesimus, 138 

opera, 64, 74 

Operation Exodus, 55 

Organization for a New Equality (O.N.E.), 32 
Osby, Greg, 86 
Overbea, Luix, 118 
Owens, 
Bill, 99 



Henry, Sr., 82 (illus.) 
Rev. Richard M., 134 (illus.) 
Owens-Hicks, Shirley, 99 

P 

P & B. See Professional and Business Men's 

Club. 
Paige Academy, 58 
Park Street, 125 

Church, 41 
Parker, Charlie, 72, 85-86 
Parks, Paul, 98 

Parting Ways (community), 17 
Patrick, 

Dr. Thomas W, 142 (illus.) 

School of Pharmacy, 142 
Paul, 

Rev. Thomas, 38, 129-130 (illus.) 

Revere School, 50 

Susan, 19, 38 
Pearl Harbor, 127 
People's 

Baptist Church, 132, 134 

Theater Company, 70 
Perry, Samuel R, 60 (illus.) 
Peterson, Oscar, Trio, 85-86 
petroleum products, 90 

pharmacies and pharmacists, 96, 140, 142, 146 
Phi Beta Kappa, 49 
Philadelphia (PA), 38 

Colored Giants, 154 
Phillips, 

School, 53 

Street, 40, 76 
phoneterion, 141 
physicians, 48, 139, 143-150 
piano-forte. See music. 
Pianoforte Studio. See Academy of Musical 

Arts. 

Pierce, Rudolph E, 109 
Pilot, 131 

Pilot, Ann Hobson, 72 (illus. )-73 

Pinckney Street, 17 

Pioneer Club, 85 

Pitcairn, Major, 122 

Pitts Hotel, 80 

Pittsburgh (PA), 139 

Planned Parenthood Federation, 149 

Plea for the Negro Soldiers, 64 

Plymouth 

Hospital, 143 (illus. )-144 (illus.) 

(MA), 17, 34 

Rock Chapter of Odd Fellows, 77 
"Poems on Various Subjects," 61-62 
poets, 61, 64 
police, 22, 31 
Pompey, 122 



175 



Pope, 

James W., 94 

Lincoln, 95 
population, Black, 17-19, 21, 27, 30, 34 
Poro School and Beauty Shoppe, 82 
Porter, James W., 149 
post office. S^e U.S. Post Office. 
Potomea, Job, 122 
Poussaint, Dr. Alvin, 148 
Price, Cornelius, 125 
Prince, 122 

Lucy Terry, 61 
printing business, 76, 79, 86, 141 
Professional 

and Business Men's Club, 26 

Hairdressers Association, 82 
Progressive Musical Union, 63 
Project 

AFRIC, 58 

Commitment, 108 
Prothrow-Stith, Dr. Deborah, 149 
Providence 

Art Club, 62 

Island, 15 
psychiatry, 142, 148 

Purple Heart medal, 127. See also decorations 

and medals. 
Putnam, 

Glendora, 108 

Jane, 19 

Q 

Quarles, 

Dr. Benjamin, 53-54 

Henry E., Sr., 107 
Quash, Quamany, 17 
Quincy-Geneva Housing Corporation, 28 
Quinn, Robert, 108 

R 

Racial Imbalance Act, 42, 55 
Radcliffe College, 73 
railroad workers, 20 
Rainbow Coalition, 102 
Rainey, Julian, 95, 107 
Ramsay, David L., 128 (illus.) 
Randolph, Rev. Peter, 131 (illus.) 
Raymond, Theodore, 80 
real estate business, 79, 90 
Reconstruction, 98 
redistricting, 102 
Reed, 

F. Marion, 50 

James, 75 

William L., 94-95 
Reminiscences of My Life in Camp, 126 
Remond, 



Charles Lenox, 39 (illus.), 121 
Sarah, 39 
Republican 
National Convention, 79, 95, 105 
Party, 96, 105 

State Central Committee, 94 
restaurants and restaurant workers, 78-80, 87 
Resthaven Nursing Home, 106 
Revolutionary War. See American Revolution. 
Rhode Island, 121 
Richard Earle Pioneer Club, 20 
Richardson, Elliot, 108 
Rickson, Gary, 75 

Rindge, "Rider of Dreams" (play), 67 
Rindge Technical High School, 156 (illus.) 
Ritz-Carlton Hotel, 68 
Riverside Research Library, 146 
RKO (theater), 70 
Robert Gould Shaw 

House, 21, 25, 154 

Memorial, 53 
Roberts, 

Benjamin, 48, 76, 112 

Louis W, 148-149 (illus.) 

Sarah, 48 
Robinson, 

Bruce, 108 

Cornelia, 20 

Rudy, 75 

Sugar Ray, 67, 83 
Rock, John Sweat, 104-105 (illus.) 
Rogers, Jimmy, 85 
Roland Hayes: A Biography, 58 
Roman Catholic Church, 129, 131 
Roslindale (MA), 27 
Ross, 

Diana, 67 

John Andrew, 73 
Roxbury, 21-24, 26-30, 42, 58, 67, 72, 82-84, 

101, 103, 106, 117, 126, 128, 131-132, 134- 

136, 139, 154 

Action Program (RAP), 30 

Community College, 57, 88 

District Court, 127, 153 
Child Care Center, 110 

Multi-Service Center (RMSC), 27-28 

Sportsmen, 154 
Ruffin, 

George L., 94, 106 

Josephine L., 20 

Stanley, 94 
Ruggles Street, 21, 88 
Rushing, Byron, 28 
Russell, 

Bill, 158-159 (illus.) 

George, 31, 102 
Russo-Japanese War, 48 



176 



Ruth M. Batson Educational Foundation, 56 
S 

Saint/St. 

Augustine and St. Martin Church, 67, 131 

Augustine Church, 131 

Cyprian's Episcopal Church, 132 (illus.) 

Gaudens, Augustus, 125 

John the Evangelist, Society of, 131 

John's Baptist Church, 131 

Mark Congregational Church, 24 

Mark Musical and Literary Union, 20 
Salem 

(MA), 39 

Peter, 122 
Samuel (ex-slave), 121 
Sanders, Walter, 118 
Sargent, Gov. Frank, 98 
Saunders, Prince, 46 
SAVE OUR LIBRARIES, 59 
Savoy (club), 68 
"Say Brother" (TV show), 119 
Schenck, John W., 107 
Scheneck, Anthony, 125 
Scott 

and Duncan Company, 90 

Jackie Jenkins, 139 
sculpture, 63, 65 
seamen, 123 
Seaver Street, 29 
Seavers, Richard, 123 

segregation, 25, 39-40, 42, 44, 48, 53-55, 137. 

See also discrimination. 
Self Elevator, 112 
"Selling of Joseph," 34 

Services of the Colored Americans in the Wars 

1776 and 1812, 113 
settlement houses, 20-22 
Seven Black American Scientists, 58 
Sewall, Samuel, 34 
Shannon, Rev. David T., 137 
Sharp School, 49 
Shaw, 

Robert Gould, 21, 63, 123 

Sarah Ann, 118 
Shawmut Avenue, 24 
Shearer Cottage, 32 
Shelburne, 

John, 154 

Recreational Center, 154 
Sheridan Broadcasting Company, 117 
Sherman School, 23 
ships and shipbuilding, 15, 76, 138 
shoes, making of, 141 
Shubert Theatre, 41 
Singing for All People, 58 
Slade, Renner, 81 



Slade's Restaurant, 81, 85 

slaves and slavery, 15, 17, 19, 34-37, 39-41, 61- 

63, 93, 104-105, 121, 130-131, 138, 141 
Slyde, Jimmy, 70-71 (illus.) 
smallpox, 138 
Smith, 

Abiel, 46 

Blanche V, 49 

Court, 28, 53 

Eleanor A., 49 

Elizabeth N., 49 

Hamilton S., 106 

Harriet L., 49 

James A., 158-159 (illus.) 

John J., 17, 53, 93 (illus. )-94 

Joshua B., 78, 94, 121 

Larry, 156 (illus.) 

Mary E., 49 

Ralph D., 30 (illus.) 

School, 47 (illus. )-48, 53 

WilHs J., 125 
Snowden, 

Col. Frank M., 126-127 (illus.) 

Muriel, 26-27 (illus.), 31, 60 

Otto, 26-27 (illus.), 60 
soldiers, 21-22, 125, 138 

Relief Fair, 63 
Some of the Colored People of God, 68 
"Something about the Blues," 70 
South 

Boston, 45 

Carolina, 125 

Carolina, University of, 48 
End, 20-23, 25, 48, 54, 86, 101, 126, 146, 
154 

Electric Company, 82 
Medical Society, 146 

Station, 88 
Southern Dining Room, 80-81 (illus.) 
Southwest Corridor Urban Design, 88 
Soviet Union, 1 16 
Spanish American War, 126 
Sparrow 

Park, 154 

Titus, 154 
Spingarn Medal, 64 
spiritual songs, 65, 69 
Sportsmen's Tennis Club, 158-159 
Springfield (MA), 109 

Republican, 116 
Stanley Brown Dance Studio, 67 
"A Star Is Born," 70 
State Street Bank, 16 
Steele, JuHan, 25 (illus.) 
Stevenson, William, 93 
Steward, 

Dr. Charles, 115 



177 



Maude Trotter, 115 
Stewart, 

Maria W., 37 

Peyton, 77 

Slam, 85 
Still, Dr. James T., 48 
Stith, Rev. Charles, 32 
Stitt, Sonny, 85 
Stokes, Louise, 154 
Stoneham (MA), 122 
storytelling, 46 
Street, J. Gordon, 113 
Stull 

and Lee, 88 

Donald L., 88 (illus.) 
Suffolk 

County, 104 

District, Fifth, 102 

University Law School, 107 
Sufshay, Samuel, 125 
Sullavou, Emmanual, 104 
SuUivan, Dr. Louis W., 150 
Summer, Donna, 74-75 (illus.) 
"Sunday in the Park" (art show), 72 
syphilis, 145 

T 

Taft, President William Howard, 106 

tailor, 78-79 

Tanner, John, 125 

"Tap" (film), 70 

Taylor, 

Balcom (Bal), 85, 96 (illus.) 
E. Alice, 23 (illus.), 82 
Marshall W. "Major," 151 
Richard, 91 

Silas (Shag), 85, 96 (illus.) 

W. O., 41 
Teamoh, Robert T, 94, 113 
telecommunications, 90 
temperance, 19 
Temple 

Lewis, 138 

Toggle. See whaling harpoon, 
tennis, 154, 158 

theater and theatrical businesses, 69 (illus. )-70 

Theater Company of Boston, 70 

Thomas, 

Gerald E., 128 

John, 157-158 (illus.) 

William, 125 
Thurman, 

Dr. Howard, 28, 133 (illus.) 

Sue Bailey, 28 
Tileston School District, 56 
"To S.M., a Young African Painter," 62 
tobacco, 15 



Toon, Therman, 118 

Torrence, Ridley, 67 

track and field, 153-156 (illus. )-158 

Treemonisha (opera), 74 

Tremont 

Street, 63, 81, 85, 87, 96, 132 

Temple, 129-130, 137 

Theatre, 41 
trombone. See music. 
Trotter, 

James Monroe, 63 

Wilham Monroe, 40-41, 49, 115 (illus. )-l 16, 
135 

Tubman, Harriet, 20-21. See also Harriet 

Tubman House. 
Tufts 

Dental School, 145 

University, 74 
Turner, 

Charles "Chuck," 28-29 (illus.) 

Henry C, 79 

John E, 153 

Plato, 17 
TV and TV awards, 59 
"Two Voyages to New England," 15 

U 

Underground Railroad, 17, 40 

undertakers, 79, 83 

Union 

Army, 126 

United Methodist Church, 22, 32, 133 
United 

Community Construction Workers, 89 
Daughters of Zion, 19 
Shoe Machinery Corporation, 141 
South End Settlements, 21 
U.S. 

Army, 126 
Attorney, 109 

Assistant, 106-107 
census, 17 

Comprehensive Child Development Act, 58 
Consul, 48 
Department of 

Health and Human Services, 117 

Health, Education and Welfare, 28, 150 

Transportation, 149 
Environmental Agency, 149 
Federal magistrate, 109 
House of Representatives, 104 
Military Academy, 128 
Navy, 128 
Office of 

Economic Opportunity, 28 

Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 
44 



178 



Olympic Team, 154, 157 
Post Office, 92 
Secretary of 

Transportation, 1 1 1 

War, 127 
Senate, 98, 109 
Supreme Court, 104 

Tennis and American Tennis Association, 158 
U.S.S. Impervious, 128 
Unity Bank, 89-90 

Upper Roxbury Community Project, 26 
Urban League of Boston, 21, 24, 26, 85 
urban renewal and development, 24, 27, 31. See 
also chapter on Community Development. 

V 

vaccination, 138 
Van Allen, Charles, 125 
Vanderpool, George, 125 
Vassar College, 60 
Vermont, 107 
veterinary medicine, 143 
VEW., 128 
Vietnam, 128 

Veterans Benefits Clearinghouse, 44 
Vineyard Gazette, 65 
viola. See music, 
violin. See music, 
violoncello. See music. 
Virginia, 131 
Vladivostock, 48 
voting rights, 96 
Vulcans, 44 

W 

Waddell, Hibernia, 20 
Walcott, 

Joe, 152 (illus.) 

Joseph, 86 
Walker, 

David, 37 

Dr. Bailus, 149 

Edwin G., 94 

Liz, 119 (illus.) 

Richard M., 148 
Wall, Rev. Bruce M., 31 
Wally's Paradise (club), 68, 86 
Walton, 

Ford Volkswagen, 91 

Ortiz, 72 
War of 1812, 123 
Ward, 

Ralph "Stodie," 156 

Nine, 92, 96 
wars. See wars by name. 
Washington, 

Booker T., 79, 116, 135 



D.C., 32, 49, 59, 69 
General George, 121 
Henry, 75 

National League, 20 
Rachel M., 63 

Street, 16, 21-22, 77-78, 128 
Wasserman Laboratory, 145 
Watson, 

Cornelius, 125 

Georgette, 31 
WBMS radio, 117 
WBOS radio, 117 
WBZ radio, 118 
WBZ-TV, 118-119 
WCVB-TV, 119-120 
Webb, Clifton, 69 
Weddington, Elaine C, 161 (illus.) 
Weld, Gov. William, 91 
Wellesley (MA), 55 
West 

Africa, 17 

Dorothy, 64 (illus. )-65 
End, 17, 50 

Branch Library, 50 
Indies, 15, 132 
Medford, 67, 160 
Newton, 67 
Rutland Square, 66 
Westfield Ford, 91 
Westin Hotel, 68 
Westport (MA), 76 
WGBH-TV, 118-119 
whales and whaling, 138 
whaling harpoon, 138 
WHDH radio, 117, 119 
WHDH-TV, 117, 119 
Wheatley, Phillis, 61 (illus. )-62 
White, 
Augustus A., 11, 148 
Charles Frederick, 64 
Kevin H., 98, 100 
Whiteman, Helen, 95 
Whitemore, Cuff, 122 
wig manufacture, 79 
WILD radio, 117 
Wilkerson, Dianne, 44 
Will (ex-slave), 121 
Williams, 

Archie, 89 (illus.) 
Edward, 125 
George Washington, 48 
Henry E, 62 
William J., 95 
Willis, 

Franklin, 125 
Jack, 119 
Wilson, 



Bob, 118 

Butler, 41 

Dr. Laval S., 59 

William, 125 
Winfrey, Robert, 73 
WNEV-TV (Channel 7), 119 
Woburn (MA), 131 
Wolff, James H., 126 
Women's 

Army Corps (WAC), 69 

Bar Association, 111 

Era Club, 20 

Relief Corps, 126 

rights, 37 

Service Club, 22 
Wood, Gladys, 56 
Woodrow Avenue, 128 
woodworking, 90 
Worcester (MA), 151 



World 

Anti-Slavery Society, 39 

War I, 19, 21, 126 

War II, 22, 117, 127 
Worthy, 

Dr. William, 91 

William, Jr., 116-117 (illus.) 
Wright, 

Dr. Louis T., 144-145 (illus.) 

Dr. Mary Crutchfield, 146 

Y 

Yancey, Charles, 102 

Yarde, Richard, 75 

Yates, lola D., 49 

Young, Annie W, 20 

Youth, 20-21, 23-29, 67, 73, 110 

Youville Hospital, 146 

YWCA, 25, 29 



180 



Introducing 

Robert C. Hayden, Author 

and Joyce Ferriabough, Coordinator 



Robert C. Hayden 



Educator, historian, and author, Hayden is known nationally 
for his writing, lecturing, and teaching on the history of Af- 
rican-Americans. He is the author of Seven Black American 
Scientists (1970), Eight Black American Inventors (1972, 
1989), Nine Black American Doctors, with co-author Jacque- 
line Harris (1976), and Black in America: Episodes in U.S. 
History (1969). He was a contributor to Dictionary of Amer- 
ican Negro Biography (1982). From 1974-1983 his weekly col- 
umn, "Boston's Black History," appeared in the Bay State 
Banner in Boston. In 1986 he wrote A Guide to the TV Series 
Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years 1954 to 1965. 

Hayden's first biography, Singing for All People: Roland 
Hayes, was published in 1989, written especially for young 
people. His other books include Faith, Culture and Leader- 
ship: A History of the Black Church in Boston; Boston's 
NAACP History: 1910 to 1982; and The African Meeting 
House in Boston: A Celebration of History. 

A member of the National Executive Committee of the As- 
sociation for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, 
and president of the Boston branch of the Association, Rob- 
ert Hayden is also a lecturer in the Department of African- 
American Studies at Northeastern University, in the Black 
Studies Program at Boston College, and holds adjunct fac- 
ulty positions at Bentley College and Curry College. 

Robert C. Hayden is the executive director of the Massa- 
chusetts Pre-Engineering Program. From 1980-1982 he was 
employed by the Boston Public Schools where he served in 
several positions — special assistant and executive assistant 
to the superintendent and director of project development. 

From 1980-1982 Hayden was director of the Secondary 
Technical Education Project at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. From 1970-1973 he served as executive director 
of the Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity 
(METCO) in Boston and then worked in educational research 
and development at the Educational Development Center in 
Newton, Massachusetts. 



183 




During the early years of his career Hayden was a science 
teacher, a news writer for Current Science, and a science ed- 
itor in the educational division of Xerox Corporation. 

He earned his B.A. in 1959 and Master's degree in 1961 
from Boston University and has completed two postgraduate 
fellowships — one at Harvard University's Graduate School 
of Education (1965-1966), the other at the Department of 
Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology (1976-1977). 



184 



Joyce Ferriabough 



Joyce Ferriabough introduced the concept for this book and 
coordinated the project which led to its pubhcation. She is a 
media and pohtical strategist and pubHc relations specialist 
with a diverse background in television production, market- 
ing, event planning, research and analysis, program and pro- 
ject development and implementation, fund raising, and 
community organizing. 

She has worked as a producer/writer for major market tel- 
evision in California and Boston. In 1983 Ferriabough worked 
with Councillor Bruce Boiling to research, write, and promote 
his linkage legislation that ties downtown development to 
community development. She has used her skills as a media 
and political strategist in a number of local, state, and na- 
tional campaigns, among them: City Councillor Bruce Boil- 
ing's 1983 re-election; Rev. Jesse Jackson's presidential 
campaign in 1984; and City Councillor Charles Yancey's run 
for state auditor in 1986, marking the first time an African- 
American representing the Democratic Party won a place on 
the statewide ballot. 

In the areas of public relations and promotion, Joyce Fer- 
riabough has been involved in a number of high-profile activ- 
ities, among them: the NAACP's Diamond Anniversary; the 
25th Anniversary of Action for Boston Community Develop- 
ment (ABCD); and the city of Boston's annual celebrations 
of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. 

In 1988 Ferriabough was appointed by Mayor Raymond 
Flynn to serve as director of the city's celebration of 350 Years 
of Black Presence in Boston, working with Rosemarie San- 
sone, director of the city's Office of Business and Cultural 
Development. This major project led to Ferriabough's idea 
for this book, African- Americans in Boston: More Than 350 
Years. During the yearlong celebration which highlighted Af- 
rican-American achievements, she also produced a number 
of events including a popular "Art of Jazz" exhibit at City 
Hall, which brought together two of the nation's oldest Af- 
rican-American museums, Boston's African Meeting House 



185 



and Chicago's DuSable Museum. During the celebration Fer- 
riabough also designed a rap and mural program in four city 
parks, designed to teach children the history of African- 
American achievements in Boston. 

In 1989 she worked in partnership with Susan Kooperstein 
to design media materials, both video and print, in nine dif- 
ferent languages, and a public relations campaign to promote 
the Boston School Department's new "school choice" pro- 
gram. She volunteers her time working with young people at 
Boston's Chez Vouz Roller Rink and each year produces their 
Black Youth Pride March and job fairs. 

Ferriabough is frequently quoted in the press for her views 
on political trends and news developments, especially issues 
affecting the African-American community. She was cited as 



186 



a role model in the Boston Heralds tribute to 350 Years of 
Black Presence, an educational tool for the Boston schools. 
She is listed in the annual publication of 100 Most Influential 
Blacks in Boston. In 1991 she was elected president of the 
Black Political Task Force, the oldest political action group 
in Massachusetts. With this election, Ferriabough became 
only the second woman to hold that position in the organi- 
zation's 12-year history. 

Joyce Ferriabough grew up in the Roxbury, Dorchester, 
South End, and Mattapan sections of Boston. She was a Na- 
tional Honor Society graduate of the Jeremiah E. Burke High 
School in Dorchester and attended Boston State Teachers 
College and the University of California at Berkeley where 
she majored in journalism and political science. 



187 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 02847 101 7 



Cover design by Larry Johnson